chapter 4 musical form and musical style n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 4 Musical Form and Musical Style PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 4 Musical Form and Musical Style

Chapter 4 Musical Form and Musical Style

301 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Chapter 4 Musical Form and Musical Style

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 4Musical Form and Musical Style Form in Music

  2. Form Memory Outer form Inner form Repetition Contrast Return Variation Genre Key Terms

  3. Form in Music • Overall shape of a musical work • Arrangement, relationship, or organization of various elements of music • Rhythm • Pitch and melody • Dynamics • Harmony • Tone color • Texture • Tonality

  4. Form in Music • Musical works can divide into clear sections with clear-cut relationships or unfold gradually and organically • Form is not purely intellectual • Our experience of form shapes our emotional response to a work • The emotional trajectory of a work is forged by careful use of repetition and contrast

  5. Form in Music • Musical works are formed through repetitions and contrasts of elements • Repetitions may be strict or free • Contrasts may be subtle or dramatic • Repetitions and contrasts define relationships between phrases of a melody or sections of a work • Memory is the key to hearing these relationships as they unfold in time

  6. Form in Music • Possible relationships between phrases, themes, or sections • Repetition (a a) • Parallelism • Identical or nearly identical restatement of a phrase, theme, or section • Feels reassuring, but lacks excitement

  7. Form in Music • Possible relationships • Contrast (a b) • A new phrase or section • May have subtle connections to previous material, or may be entirely new • Provides excitement of new phrase, theme, or section, but doesn’t feel stable or complete

  8. Form in Music • Possible relationships • Variation (a a’) • A restatement of previous material, but one or more elements are altered • Simultaneous repetition and contrast • Similar enough to sound like the same idea, but definitely not identical • Variation can change or transform the mood or feeling of a phrase, theme, or section

  9. Form in Music • Possible relationships • Contrast and return (a b a) • Unlike repetition, return is restatement of original material after contrasting material • You can’t return home if you never leave! • Commonly used, emotionally satisfying formula (unity and variety) • Combines excitement of new material and sense of relief with return of familiar material (homecoming)

  10. Listening for Form • Try several examples—which of these do you hear? • Repetition? • Contrast? • Variation? • Contrast and return?

  11. Form and Forms • Form is organization of elements in a work • A form refers to one of many standardized patterns used by composers • Possible forms include: • Strophic form (A A A …) • Ternary form (A B A) • Fugue • Baroque dance form (aabb) • Sonata form

  12. Form and Forms • An example: A B A form • Three large sections: statement, contrast, return • Each section might have its own form • A = a b a • B = c d c • A = a b a • Such “nesting” arrangements are often used to create more complicated forms

  13. Form and Forms • “Outer” and “inner” form • Standard patterns outline a work’s overall shape—its “outer” form (e.g., A B A) • “Outer” forms are reassuring, provide a satisfying, easy-to-follow overall shape • “Outer” forms do not describe the content of each section, its moment-to-moment inner workings, or the feel of contrasting material—its “inner” form

  14. Form and Forms • “Inner” Form • Take any work in A B A form • Is B in a different mode or key? • Is B’s contrast due to rhythm, texture, tone color, or some other element? • Does the return convey excitement, trickiness, or relief? • Take any other work in A B A form • The answers will be different! • Same “outer” form, different “inner” form

  15. Musical Genres • Categories or types of musical compositions • A genre can be defined by a its: • Performing forces (number and kind of instruments or voices used) • Function or purpose • Text • Not to be confused with form

  16. Musical Genres • Examples of genres: • Concerto • Mass • Oratorio • Symphony • Sonata • String quartet • Song cycle • Madrigal • Opera

  17. Genre vs. Form • A genre is defined by its broadest features (performers, function, etc.) • A form is defined by its internal sections and their interrelationships

  18. Genre vs. Form • In literature, poetry is a genre • A work in verse • Usually breaks down into stanzas and lines • Often uses poetic meter and rhyme • Traditionally intended for public reading • Haiku, sonnets, and limericks are forms • Each has a specific number of lines (3, 14, and 5, respectively) • Each uses a specific poetic meter (or specific number of syllables per line) • The last two have an expected rhyme scheme

  19. Genre vs. Form • In music, the symphony is a genre • a large work in several movements for orchestra (performing forces) • written for entertainment at a public concert (function) • Each movement of a symphony may use a different form—Haydn’s 95th uses: • Sonata form • Theme and variations • Minuet form • Rondo form

  20. Listening for Genre • Try several examples—answer these questions: • What is the function of this music? • Public or private entertainment? Worship? Patriotic? Commercial? • What are the performing forces? • Orchestra? String quartet? Chorus? Solo voices? Piano? Rock band? Jazz combo? • What is the genre?