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Bipolar Disorder. For BIO 443: Drugs and Disease Presented by: Abby Normal. Bipolar Disorder … . Also known as Manic Depression Results in pathological mood swings from mania to depression These mood swings occur spontaneously. Manic Phase. Characterized by Hyperactivity

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Bipolar Disorder


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    1. Bipolar Disorder For BIO 443: Drugs and Disease Presented by: Abby Normal

    2. Bipolar Disorder … • Also known as Manic Depression • Results in pathological mood swings from mania to depression • These mood swings occur spontaneously

    3. Manic Phase • Characterized by • Hyperactivity • Over-involvement • Inflated self-esteem • Easily distracted • Little need for sleep • Hypomania • Less severe • Does not cause significant distress

    4. Depressive Phase • Characterized by • Sluggishness • Loss of self-esteem • Withdrawal • Sadness • Excess need for sleep • Risk of suicide

    5. Epidemiology • Overall affects men and women equally • Affects about 1% of adults in the US • Usually appears between 15-25 years • No difference among racial groups

    6. Types of Bipolar Disorder • Bipolar I • More time in depressed state • Long periods of normality • Bipolar II • Long episodes of depression, occasional hypomania • Virtually no time of wellness

    7. Types of Bipolar Disorder • Cyclothymia • Many episodes of hypomania • Occasional mild depression • Mixed states • Signs of depression and mania at same time • Rapid cycling • Many cycles of mania and depression each year • Four or more episodes a year

    8. Childhood Onset Bipolar Disorder • Affects those younger than age 15 • Often involves mixed episodes • Extreme amounts of cycling – many times a day • Bipolar is more severe when present in children and harder to treat

    9. Genetics • Environment can trigger it and affect the severity of the disorder • No single genetic basis • Most likely complex genetic disorder • One possibility … inherited variation in serotonin transporter gene may play a role

    10. Serotonin • Low levels can set off impulsive and aggressive behaviors, depression • Low levels can also lead to inability to handle powerful emotions

    11. Pet Scan for serotonin Person in depressive episode Healthy individual

    12. Treatments • Older Mood Stabilizers • Lithium • Valproic Acid • New Mood Stabilizers • Lamictal • Neurotonin • Topamax

    13. Old Mood Stabilizers • Have been shown to reduce mania and slow cycling • Often require blood levels frequently for monitoring • Many side effects • Nausea, vomiting • Weight gain or loss • Acne problems • Hair loss • Affects balance

    14. Lithium and Valproic Acid • Slow action suggest that they may regulate gene expression • Thought to inhibit protein kinase C which regulates neurohormonal release • Interferes with the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine

    15. New Mood Stabilizers • Have been shown to be effective in adults • Effects are not known in children yet • Mechanisms are unknown • Effects are quicker • Side effects appear less • May have long term side effects that are not known of yet

    16. Future? • Researchers believe they are coming closer to finding a genetic link and mechanism of the disorder • This could lead to better drugs that would act specifically for bipolar disorder

    17. Questions?