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Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin. A Presentation Developed by. Wisconsin Sea Grant Advisory Services March 2004. Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin. Wisconsin has become host to several aquatic species that never existed here naturally Some Atlantic Ocean species came in through the Welland Canal:

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Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin

A Presentation Developed

by

Wisconsin Sea Grant Advisory Services

March 2004

aquatic exotics in wisconsin
Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin
  • Wisconsin has become host to several aquatic species that never existed here naturally
  • Some Atlantic Ocean species came in through the Welland Canal:
    • Lampreys, 1930’s
    • Alewife, 1949
    • White perch, 1989
    • Three-spine stickleback 1991
aquatic exotics in wisconsin3
Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin
  • Some were intentionally introduced:
    • Chinook and Coho salmon 1963
    • Rainbow trout 1963
    • Brown trout 1960’s
    • Carp in 1880’s
aquatic exotics in wisconsin4
Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin
  • Some escaped from lakes, ponds or as bait:
    • Smelt
    • Goldfish
    • Grass Carp
    • Rusty Crayfish
    • Purple Loosestrife
aquatic exotics in wisconsin5
Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin
  • Some recent invaders came in the ballast water of sea-going ships:
    • Ruffe in 1986
    • Zebra Mussels in 1988
    • Spiny water flea in 1990
    • Round goby in 1995
aquatic exotics in wisconsin6
Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin
  • Invasive species traits:
    • High reproductive rate
    • Mature quickly
    • Eat various types of food
    • Tolerate poor water quality
    • Easily adapt to new habitats
aquatic exotics in wisconsin7
Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin
  • Native species traits:
    • Have narrow food preferences
    • Require certain spawning habitat
    • Intolerant of poor water quality
aquatic exotics in wisconsin8
Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin
  • A Quick look at six recent invaders:
    • Zebra mussels
    • Round goby
    • Ruffe
    • Purple loosestrife
    • Eurasian milfoil
    • Spiny water fleas
slide9

Eats plankton,

filters up to 1 liter of water per day

Zebra Mussel

Max. size ~ 2’’

Introduced via ballast water from Europe

First found in Lake St. Claire (MI) in 1988

Produce 40,000 eggs/year

Densities up to 700,000 per sq. meter = 43,000 on a piece of notebook paper

slide10

Zebra Mussel

Green Bay

Milwaukee

Madison

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Veliger

Post Veliger

Egg

3-5 Days

Microscopic

Can be felt

Can be seen

Adult

Juvenile

4-5 Years

Byssal Threads

Zebra Mussel Life Cycle

Planktonic up to 1 month

Settle to bottom and attach to substrate

Wisconsin Sea Grant Advisory Services

slide14

Wisconsin Waters Infested with Zebra Mussels

Lake Michigan, Lake Superior, Mississippi River and 52 inland waters:

Fond du Lac (2)

Lake Winnebago

Long Lake

Brown County (1)

Lower Fox River

Calumet County(1)

Lake Winnebago

Kenosha County (5)

Silver Lake

Lake Andrea

Elizabeth Lake

Lake Mary

Powers Lake

Dane County (1)

Lake Monona

Forest County (1)

Lake Metonga

slide15

Wisconsin Waters Infested with Zebra Mussels

Manitowoc County (1)

Cedar Lake

Sheboygan County (4)

Sheboygan Marsh

Big Elkhart Lake

Crystal Lake

Lake Ellen

Oconto County (1)

Machickanee Flowage

Racine County (4)

Racine Quarry

Waubeesee Lake

Wind Lake

Tichigan lake

Walworth County (4)

Lake Geneva

Beulah Lake

Delavan Lake

Lauderdale Chain of Lakes

Shawano County (1)

Shawano Lake

slide16

Wisconsin Waters Infested with Zebra Mussels

Waukesha County (17)

Lac La Belle

Oconomowoc Lake

Oconomowoc River

Lake Nagawicka

Little Muskego Lake

Lower Nashotah Lake

Upper and

Lower Nemahbin Lakes

Bark River

Crooked Lake

Pewaukee Lake

Okauchee Lake

North lake

Fowler Lake

Golden lake

Upper and

Lower Phantom Lake

slide17

Wisconsin Waters Infested with Zebra Mussels

Winnebago County (4)

Lake Winnebago

Lake Butte des Morts

Lake Poygan

Lake Winneconne

Wood County (1)

Lake Nepco

Wisconsin River

Washington County (3)

Big Cedar Lake

Little Cedar Lake

Pike Lake

Waushara County (1)

Long Lake

Adams County (1)

Arrowhead Lake

zebra mussels 2004
Zebra Mussels 2004

(17 counties, 51 lakes)

slide19

?

Wisconsin Lakes With Zebra Mussels

51

slide20

Ruffe

3-4’’ Long

Max. 10’’

S. Zienert

First found in 1986 in Lake Superior

Introduced via ballast water from Southern Europe

Affects perch, whitefish and minnows

Eats fish eggs, bottom-dwelling insects and worms

Now Present in Lakes Superior, Huron and Michigan

slide21

Superior

Green Bay

Ruffe

Madison

Milwaukee

slide22

Round Goby

3-4’’ Long

Max. 10’’

Introduced via ballast water from Europe

Affects sculpins and other bottom-dwelling species

Eats fish eggs, bottom-dwelling insects and worms

Present in all the Great Lakes, Chicago River

slide23

Superior

Round Goby

Sturgeon Bay

Green Bay

Madison

Milwaukee

slide24

Purple Loosestrife

4-Sided Stem

2 Million Seeds per Year

Displaces Native Vegetation

Destroys Habitat

  • Controlled by:

Physical Removal

Beetles

slide27

Eurasian Watermilfoil

  • - Displaces native vegetation- Clogs boating and swimming areas- Spread by boaters through fragmentation
  • Control:Northern milfoil beetleChemical
eurasian milfoil
Eurasian Milfoil

Present in:> 52 counties > 400 waters

rusty crayfish
Rusty Crayfish
  • Native to southern U.S.
  • Introduced with bait
  • Aggressive
  • Destroys vegetation as they feed
  • Displaces native crayfish
  • Present in many Wisconsin lakes
  • Often spread as bait
rusty crayfish31
Rusty Crayfish

Documented

Suspected

slide32

Spiny Water Flea - ‘BC’ & ‘CP’

Bythotrephescederstroemi

& Cercopagis pengoi

5mm Long

Max. 1/3’’

Long spines make them hard for fish to eat

Foul fishing lines and nets (look fuzzy or gooey)

Introduced via ballast water from Europe

Present in all the Great Lakes

slide33

Superior

Spiny Zooplankton

Green Bay

Madison

Milwaukee

slide34

Preventing The Spread

Drain bilge water

Dispose of live bait

Clean off weeds

slide35

Call: Wisconsin DNR

or

Wisconsin Sea Grant

If You Catch An Aquatic Exotic

KEEP It:

Put it in a plastic bag or foil

FREEZE It:

Put it in a freezer or ice chest

REPORT It:

aquatic exotics in wisconsin36
Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin
  • How Can You Help?
    • Learn To Identify Them
    • Report If You Catch One
    • Know Their Effects on the Ecosystem
    • Prevent Their Spread
    • Teach Others
for more information
For More Information
  • Visit the Sea Grant Nonindigenous Species Sites:
  • www.sgnis.org
  • www.seagrant.wisc.edu
  • Or Call:
    • Wisconsin Sea Grant
      • (920) 683-4697
    • Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
      • (608) 266-9270