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Global Warming
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  1. Global Warming So What? . Dr. Gene Fry. October 2014

  2. Pay ranchers and farmers to move even without more CO2. Blame each year. rising 5% / year. carbon from the air back into soils. Why? We already have too much CO2 in the air. Warming could well triple, vanishing Arctic sea ice (about 1°F warming), phasing out coal’s sulfur emissions (ditto) & warming Earth enough so energy out = in (ditto). Too much heat can cut crop yields in half. Don’t let our food supply dry up. Give every American a $300 carbon tax credit Pay for it with a 3¢ / lb carbon tax,.

  3. WATER . Rainfall becomes more variable. Planet-wide, we get a little more rain. Around the Arctic gets lots more rain, but mid-latitudes (20°-40°) get less rain. . Yet in any one place, we get more hours and days without rain. In other words, we get more downpours and floods, yet also longer, drier, hotter droughts.

  4. US Warming Graph . 3-Year Moving Average +5.9°F / century trend -2.6°F / century +12.5°F / century Consider Salina, Kansas, in the heart of wheat country, breadbasket of the world. At +5.9°F / century, by 2100 summer in Salina would be as hot as Dallas now. Warming at 12.5°F a century, by 2100 it would be as hot as Las Vegas now. (Since 1992, Kansas warmed twice as fast as US). We should PREVENT this.

  5. Years till Las Vegas . Since 1992, Salina has warmed 73% faster than the US average. The analysis was later extended to 128 cities, across 47 states. The results were generally similar, but warming was a little slower: 5.3°F / century over 1978-2013 and 11.1°F / over 1993-2013. (Compare to 5.9°F and 12.5°F / century.) Warming was slower in coastal states, especially Pacific & Alaska. But it was faster in between, especially west of the Mississippi. Warming was fastest where most of our food comes from.

  6. Greenhouse Effect Dark Earth absorbs sunlight. Earth warms up and radiates heat. Greenhouse gases in the air (GHGs) intercept some outgoing radiation and re-radiate it back down. This warms Earth more. More GHGs = warmer still. Light surfaces reflect sunlight. Those surfaces don’t warm Earth much. Dark surfaces do the opposite.

  7. Greenhouse Gases • GHGs warm Earth by 32°C (58°F). Earth would average 0°F without them. • Water vapor (H2O) does 2/3 of this warming. As Earth warms up, evaporation increases H2O in the air. This amplifies warming from other GHGs a lot. Carbon dioxide (CO2) does 52% of the rest. Methane (CH4, natural gas) does 30%. CFCs, nitrous oxide, and other gases do the rest.

  8. CO2 Levels in the Air , Up 42% highest level in 15-20 million years Earth then was 5-11°F warmer. (35% Since 1880) Seas then were 80-130 feet higher. Annual Averages CO2 level as high 3.0-3.5 million years ago Earth then was 3-6°F warmer. Seas then were 65-120 feet higher. This means ice then was gone from almost all of Greenland, some of East Antarctica. most of West Antarctica, and 300 ppm (maximum between ice ages) CO2 levels now will warm Earth’s surface 5°F We face lag effects. So far, half the CO2 we’ve emitted has stayed in the air. The rest has gone into carbon sinks. , not just the 2°F seen to date. Current CO2 levels are already too high for us. - into oceans, soils, trees, rocks. CO2 Levels in Air

  9. • Ocean Heat Content . Of the net energy absorbed by Earth from the Sun, ~84% went to heat the oceans. 7% melted ice, 5% heated soil, rocks & trees, while only 4% heated the air. Levitus, 2005 1967-1990 0.4 x 1022 Joules / year I 1991-2005 0.7 x 1022 Joules / yr 1022 Joules = 100 yearsof US energy use, at 2000-13 rate 2006-2013 1.2 x 1022 Joules / yr = 20 x human use Heat Content (1022 Joules) acceleration By now, the oceans gain more heat in 2 years than ALL the energy we’ve ever used. IMMENSE heat gain From 2007 to now, ocean heat gain has switched to mostly (70%) below 700 meters deep. Since 2007, ~90% goes to heat oceans, less to air and others. We notice air heating slower.

  10. ∆°C sulfates still 3x 1880 levels NASA GISS - Earth’s 7,000 weather stations - adjusted for urban heat island effects Brown . cloud. grows over .. China, India. . warmingunmasked Sulfates fall 27%. cool Sulfate Cooling Un-Smooths GHG Warming Pinatubo erupts Coal-Fired Power Plants Sulfates fall 13%. Sulfates up 46%. Sulfates up 52% (61/40). cool Sulfatesup 110%. El Chichón erupts major cooling cool warming unmasked cool Katmai, Colima erupt Santa Maria, Soufriere, Pelee erupt USSO2 cuts start. Agung erupts Krakatoa erupts warming unmasked cool Great Depression cool less SO2 up the stacks cool cool Cooling offsets GHG warming. Cooling offsets GHG warming. Cooling limits GHG warming. 40 89 116 118 61 77 162 1880 2000 Sulfate Levels in Greenland Ice milligrams of Sulfate per Ton of Ice (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2002)

  11. ~ means “approximately, roughly, is about equal to” 1°C = 1.8°F. One MW can power several hundred US homes. Earth Is Heating Up (±75 million MW) • Earth now absorbs 0.25%more energy than it emits - a 300 millionMW heat gain. This absorption has been accelerating, from near zero in 1960. 300 million MW Earth must warm another 0.6°C, so far, so it emits enough heat to balance absorption. • Airat the land surface is 1.0°Cwarmerthan 100 years ago. Half that warming happened in the last 33 years. • Airat the sea surface is 0.8°C warmerthan 100 years ago. • The oceans have gained~10 x moreheat in 40years than ALL the energyhumans have EVER used. = 20x human energy use. = 70 x globalelectric supply

  12. Tipping Points • Report to US & British Legislators - January 2006 What would make climate change accelerate, so natural forces defeat our efforts to slow it? • Disappearance of sea ice means more heat is absorbed by the water below. • Carbon sinks fade, fail, and even reverse in oceans & forests. 3 Methane release from permafrost revs up warming in a vicious circle.

  13. Water Hurricanes convert ocean heat to powerful winds & heavy rains. Intense hurricanes are becoming more common. Higherhurricane energy closely tracks sea surface warming. With more carbon, oceans have grown more acidic. So, forming shells is more difficult. They dissolve easier. Warmer water holds less dissolved oxygen. Fish & mollusks suffer. Jellyfish prosper. Sea surfaces warmed 0.15°C over 1997-2004, so planktonabsorbed 7% less CO2. More Heat - So?

  14. Reservoirs in the Sky Most mountain glaciers dwindle ever faster: in the Alps, Andes, Rockies, east & central Himalayas. When Himalayan glaciers vanish, so could the Ganges River (etc.) in the dry season. Mountain snows melt earlier. CA’s San Joaquin River (Central Valley, US “salad bowl”) could dry up by July in most years. The Colorado River’s recent 10-year drought was the worst since white men came.

  15. Earth’s Thermostat. Minimum ice area fell 39% in 35 years, Arctic Ocean ice could vanish by fall in 8 years Greenland’s netice-melt rate rose 7 xover the past 17 years. Its yearly net melt-water already 1/2 of US water use. Antarctica is losing half the ice, but has 9 x as much.. So, sea level will likely rise 1-7 feet by 2100 & far more over centuries to come. Arctic Ocean ice is shrinking fast. As the ice recedes, Earth absorbs more heat. It will warm more, even without more CO2. PIOMAS The ice got thinner too. Wipneus U of Bremen , 39% in the last 10. while volume fell 64% & be gone all summer in 25.

  16. Methane Tipping Point? Thawing Arctic permafrost holdstwice as much carbon as our air. Permafrost area shrank 7%from 1900 to 2000. It may shrink 75% more by 2100. Already, Arctic permafrost emits ~ carbon as all US vehicles. It can add ~100ppm* of CO2 to the air by 2100, and almost 300 more by 2300. Seabed methanehydrates may hold a similar amount, but so far they are releasing only 20-30% as much carbon. There may be far more permafrost carbon under Antarctic ice. * 100 ppm ~ ppm from fossil fuels to date.

  17. Hot & Dry From 1979 to 2005, the tropics spread. . Sub-tropic arid belts grew ~140 miles toward the poles, . a century ahead of schedule. . That means our jet stream moves north more often. In turn,the US gets hot weather more often. 2011-12 was America’s hottest on record. . Over September 2011 - August 2012, relative to local norms, 33 states were drier than the wettest state (WA) was wet. In 2012,44 of 48 states were drier than normal... Severedrought covered a record 35-46% of the US . Drought reduced the corn crop by a quarter. Record prices followed. The soybean crop was also hit hard. . What Else? , for 39 weeks.

  18. Notable Recent Droughts . When I was young, the leading wheat producers were the US Great Plains, Russia’s steppes, Canada, Australia, and Argentina’s Pampas. Notable Recent Droughts. When Where How Bad 2003 France, W Europe record heat 2003-10 Australia worst in millennia. 2005 Amazon Basin once a century. 2007 Atlanta, US SE once a century 2007 Europe: Balkans record heat, Greek fires, 2007-9 California record low rain in L.A. 2008-9 Argentina worst in half a century 2008-11 north China ~worst in 2 centuries. 2009 India monsoon season driest since 1972 2010 Russia record heat, forest fires. 2011 Texas, Oklahoma record heat & drought 2012 US: SW, MW, SE most widespread in 78 years; record heat “Once a century” droughts are now happening once a decade. #3 now hotter in 2012 , 20-70K die. Record heat in 2013. Worse in 2010. Since 1979, its dry season grew longer by 1 week per decade. hundreds die. CA worse in 2013. China now #1 in wheat. #2 in wheat 15K die. Wheat prices up 75%.

  19. Is That All? No .. Over 1994-2007, desertsgrew from 18 to 27% of China’s area. With more evaporation & irrigation, many water tables fall .. Since 1985, half the lakes in Qinghai province (China) vanished. 92% in Hebei (around Beijing). Irrigation wells chase water ever deeper. Water prices rise. Inland seas and lakes dry up& vanish: the Aral Sea, Sea of Galilee, Lake Chad (Darfur), Lake Eyre. More riversfail toreach the sea: the Yellow,Colorado, Indus, Darling Rivers so far. Water 3-20 feet/ year.

  20. ExtremeDroughtCanClobberEarth • In 1989, NASA climate models showed, as CO2 levels rise and Earth warms up, droughts would spread and intensify. • “Once-per-9-year” droughts would cover 27% of Earth by 2002. • With business as usual emissions, by 2059 CO2 levels would double pre-industrial levels. • As a result, Earth would warm 4.2°C [7.5°F] from 1880 levels. Rain would increase 14%. • Despite the added rain, increased evaporation would bring extreme “once-a-century”drought to 45% of Earth, & rising. WET DRY 0 1 5 16 36 36 16 5 1 0 % Occurrence in Control Run Fig. 1d in David Rind, R. Goldberg, James Hansen, Cynthia Rosenzweig, R. Ruedy, “Potential Evapotranspiration and the Likelihood of Future Droughts,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, No. D7, 6/20/1990, 9983-10004. .

  21. Droughts Are Spreading Already. Switch from what could happen to what has happened already. combined effect 30% = 16 million square miles 10 million more square miles Compare 2002 to 1979. 11% of the area during 1951-80: once per 9 years Area whererain is scarce increased by quite a bit: 3-6 million square miles. Evaporationincreased, by a lot since 1987. Compare 30% actualsevere drought area in 2002 (11% of the time during 1951-80) to 27% projected for 2000-2004 in previous slide. from Fig. 9 in Aiguo Dai, Kevin E. Trenberth, Taotao Qian [NCAR], "A Global Dataset of Palmer Drought Severity Index for 1870-2002: Relationship with Soil Moisture and Effects of Surface Warming,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, December 2004, 1117-1130 Droughts spread, as projectedor faster. Evaporation at work Earth’s area in severe droughthastripledsince 1979. Over 23 years, the area with severe drought grew by the size of North America.

  22. SUMMARY Severedroughthas arrived, Severe droughtnow afflicts an area the size of Asia. So, farmers mine groundwater ever faster for irrigation. From 1979 to 2002 (+0.5°C) . 1) The area where rain is scarce increased by the size of the United States. Add in more evaporation.. 2) The area with severe drought grew by the size of North America. 3) The area suffering severe drought tripled. 4)The similarly wet area shrankby the size of India. as projected or faster.

  23. In 2005-6, scientists calculated how climate would change for 9 Northeast and 6 Great Lakes states in 2 scenarios: #1 - a transition away from fossil fuels, or #2 - continued heavy reliance on them (business as usual emissions). By 2085, averaged across 15 states, the climate change would be like moving 330 miles to the SSW (coal & oil use dwindle), or moving 650 miles to the SSW (heavy coal & oil use). Consider central Kansas, heart of wheat country. 330 miles to the SSW lies the area from Amarillo to Oklahoma City. 650 miles to the SSW lies the area around Alpine & Del Rio, Texas. 2 people / square mile. Cactus grows there. Mesquite & sagebrush too. No wheat Turning Wheat into Cactus .

  24. What Drives Drought? The water-holding capacity of air rises exponentially with temperature. Air 4°C warmer holds 33% more moisture at the same relative humidity. . more moisture in the air does not equal more clouds. To maintain soil moisture, ~10% more rain is required to offset each 1°C warming. Warmth draws more water UP (evaporation), so less goes DOWN (into soils) or SIDEways (into streams). Morewater isstoredin theair,lessinsoils. Not all the water that goes up comes back down. Thus,

  25. Droughts - Why Worry? . Droughts - Why Worry? 2059 - 2 x CO2 (Business as Usual Emissions) . More moisture in the air, Average US stream flows decline 30%, Tree biomass in the eastern US falls by up to 40%. More dry climate vegetation: The vegetation changes mean • Biological Net Primary Productivity falls 30-70%.. Rind et al., 1990 but 15-27% less in the soil. despite 14% more rain. savannas,prairies, deserts

  26. Crop Yields Fall. United States: 2059 Projections doubled CO2 - Business as Usual Great Lakes, Southeast, southern Great Plains Corn, Wheat, Soybeans 2 Climate Models (Scenarios) . NASA GISS Results Goddard Institute for Space Studies Yieldsfall30%, averaged across regions & crops. NOAA GFDL Results Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab Yieldsfall50%, averaged across regions & crops. CO2 fertilization not included Rind et al., 1990 - 3 of the big 4 crops (rice is the 4th) (based on 4.2°C warmer, 14% more rain) (based on ~ 4.5°C warmer, 5% less rain)

  27. Photosynthesis, Warming & CO2 . Plants evaporate (transpire) water in order to [like blood] get it up to leaves, where H2O & CO2 form carbohydrates, pull other soil nutrients up from the roots to the leaves, and [like sweat] (3) cool leaves, so photosynthesis continues & proteins aren’t damaged. When water is scarce, fewer nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.) get up to leaves. So, with more CO2, leaves make more carbohydrates, but fewer proteins.

  28. Warming & Falling Yields . For wheat, corn & rice, photosynthesis in leaves slows above 35°C (95°F) and stops above 40°C (104°F). Over 1992-2003, warming above the norm cut corn, rice & soybean yields by 10+% / °C. Over 1982-98, warming in 618+ US counties cut corn & soybean yields 17% / °C. With more CO2, 2°C warming cut yields 8-38% for irrigated wheat in India. Warmer nights since 1979 cut rice yield growth 10%± in 6 Asian nations. Warming since 1980 cut wheat yield growth 5.5%, corn 3.8%.

  29. Heat Spikes Devastate Crop Yields Heat Spikes Devastate Crop Yields Schlenker & Roberts 2009 Average yields for corn and soybeans could plummet 37-46%by 2100 with the slowest warming and 75-82%with quicker warming. Why? Corn and soybean yields rise with warming up to 29-30°C, but fall more steeply with higher temperatures. Heat spikes on individual days haveBIG impacts.

  30. Food Price Index . Poor people could not afford to buy enough food in 2007-8. . Malnutrition & starvation rose. Food riots toppled governments in 2011. and 2010. With food stocks at low levels, food prices rose steeply in 2007-8 2002-04 = 100 UN, Food & Agriculture Organization: World Food Situation / FAO News Ditto 2010-11.

  31. Estimated Impact of +3°C on Crop Yields by 2050 for wheat, rice, maize, soybean & 7 other crops One of many studies, more pessimistic than average. average of 3 emission scenarios, across 5 global climate models, no CO2 fertilization from Chapter 3 in World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change. by World Bank, Müller, C., A. Bondeau, A. Popp, K. Waha, and M. Fader. 2009. “Climate Change Impacts on Agricultural Yields.” Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research citing

  32. Deserts Are Already Spreading. 50 Year Trend in Palmer Drought Severity Index, 1950-2002 The Sahara Desert is spreading south, into Darfur & the Sahel. . The Gobi Desert is spreading into northeast China. More sandstorms visit Beijing. Retreating glaciers moisten the soil in Tibet.. 75 60 45 30 15 0 -15 -30 -45 -60 -180 -120 -60 0 60 120 180 Fig. 7 in Dai, Trenberth & Qian, Journal of Hydrometeorology, Dec. 2004 -6.0-4.0-2.0 0.0 +2.0 +4.0 +6.0 More negative is drier. More positive is wetter. See Spain, Italy, Greece. The USA lucked out till 2007.

  33. 2° vs 4° Warming . 1.0°C warming is here. Holding warming to 2°C, not 4°, prevents these losses: 3/4 of Gross World Product $42 Trillion ~ 3/4 of GWP 1/5 of the World’s Food . 2/3 of Amazon Rainforest 1/8 of the world’soxygensupply Gulf Stream + West Antarctic Icecap . Florida & Louisiana, central CA, Long Island, Cape Cod 1/2 of all Species . 2°C warming is manageable. 2°C has become unavoidable. - Norfolk area, much of 4°Cthreatens civilization itself.

  34. 2°C Warming - 450 ppm CO2e*.. . Stern Review, British government, Oct. 2006 . (a report by dozens of scientists, headed by the World Bank’s chief economist) . selected effects - unavoidable damages. Hurricane costs double. Major heat waves are common. Droughts intensify. Civil wars & border wars over water increase: Crop yieldsrisenowhere, fall in the tropics. Greenland icecap collapsebecomes irreversible. The ocean begins its invasion of Bangladesh. * also includes CH4, O3, SO4, etc. Many more major floods Forestfires worsen. Deserts spread. more Darfur’s.

  35. 3°C Warming - 550 ppm CO2e additional damages – partly avoidable Droughts & hurricanes get much worse. Hydropower and irrigation decline. Crop yieldsfallsubstantiallyin many areas. More water wars & failed states. 2/3ofAmazonrainforestmayturntosavanna,desertscrub. Tropical diseases (malaria, etc.) spread farther & faster. 15-50%of species face extinction. Stern Review + Water is scarce. Terrorists multiply.

  36. .4°C Warming - 650 ppm CO2e.. (double pre-industrial levels) further damages - avoidable • Water shortages afflict almost all people. Crop yieldsfallinALLregions,by1/3inmany. Entire regions ceaseagriculturealtogether. Water wars, refugee crises, & terrorism become intense. Methane releasefrom permafrost accelerates. The Gulf Stream may stop, monsoons often fail. West Antarctic ice sheet collapse speeds up. Stern Review

  37. 5°C Warming . 5°C Warming - 750 ppm CO2e (Business as Usual Emissions) . Deserts GROW by 2 x the size of the US. World food falls by 1/3 to 1/2. Human population falls . to match the reduced food supply. Other species fare worse. a lot,

  38. UN Chief on Climate Change . Some scientists are saying publicly that if humanity goes on with business as usual, climate change could lead to the collapse of civilization, even in the lifetime of today's children. United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon said “I think that is a correct assessment.” He added carefully “If we take action today, it may not be too late.” September 24, 2007

  39. Costs ―––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––------––––––––––––––––– Costs ofInaction: includes $120 billion ($400 / American) in the US for 2012 . Already 0.5 million / year die worldwide. . $74 Trillion This exceeds GWP. a HUGE hiddenTAX:$50,000 / American $85 / Ton of CO2 ―––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––------––––––––––––––––– Costs ofAction: Spend 1% of GWP ($150 billion), each year, ± 2%. Damages fall to $25 - $30 / Ton of CO2. Savings ~ $2.5 Trillion, net from each year’s spending. inflation-adjusted $, Business as Usual DARA, Watkiss, Stern Review now $695 Billion/Year (exceeds 1% of GWP) (almost 1% of US GNP) (+4.5 million from coal sulfates) Costs GROW over time. (present value: 2005-2200) $30-75 / year / American – CBO, EPA

  40. Solutions Put way less carbon in the air. Take carbon out of the air, big time.

  41. Take Carbon Out of the Air! 1 Rebuild rangelands: Speed process up 10-50 x with short rotation cattle grazing. Dung beetles move carbon underground.. Absorb 1 Ton of carbon / acre / year. Farmingcan put 4.3 GTCO2 / yr in soils (0.7 in US) Organic farms add 0.5 T of carbon(1.8 CO2) / acre / year to soil. 3 Put CO2 intoselectedrock.. Spread around millions of 2-story towers with crushed rock. 4 Bury biochar in shallow pits. perennial grass roots add carbon to soil. Lots more rain soaks in. Take 80ppm CO2 from the air. , for $20-100 / T. Speed up natural process 10 x. Rebuild soil carbon even more.

  42. Take More Carbon Out of the Air? Feed iron to algae. They suck CO2 from the air - just breaks even.. Algae may not sink. 5 Farmtheoceans. 8 x the carbon in our food More fertilizer (K, P, N) may be needed. 6Planttrees,maintainforestsoils: Below-ground carbon ~ above-ground. Trees need water, but soils will have less. Other problems will arise.. humus, roots, fungi, bacteria, leaves. deforestationcontinues. BUT Drought, fires shrivel forests.

  43. . Poor . nations . believe . rich . countries . created . the. problem,. so . let . THEM. fix . it! .... . In late 2009, Chinapledged tocutits CO2 intensity 40-45% by 2020, India 20-25%. 1st time,China’selectricity fromwindgrewmore (26 TWh)than from coal (12 TWh). . began CO2 cap & trade around Shenzen, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Wuhan, Tianjin & Chongqing. Their CO2 prices ~ California, RGGI, EU’s. In 2014 Q1-2, China coal use fell,for the 1st time in 100 years: * Misc. = Korea, Indonesia, Thailand, Taiwan, Malaysia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, etc. World CO2 Emissionsfrom Fossil Fuels32.7 Billion Tons in 2012 In 2012, for the In 2013-14, China China CO2 output may peak by 2016 (Bernstein) or 2020 (Citi). 1.8% from 2013 Q1-2 – ahead of schedule.

  44. America’s Low-Carbon Revolution Has Begun US DOE / EIA US DOE / EIA Net Imports US DOE / EIA US DOE / EIA

  45. Companies are set to cash in on greentechnologies. For example, . • GE Wind • Philips Electronics CFLs – compact fluorescent lights • Evergreen Solar photovoltaic (PV) cells & arrays • Archer Daniels Midland ethanol & biodiesel • Entergy nuclear power plants • Johnson Controls energy management systems • Bechtel (IGCC coal plants) Integrated Gasified Combined Cycle • Magna International lightweight auto parts • Wheelabrator landfill gas • Southwestern Energy natural gas • Halma detect water leaks • Veolia Environnement desalinization plants. Gasifying coal helps sequester CO2.

  46. US Electricity, by Source & Yr .

  47. Solutions - Electricity •Price it right Coal: Natural Gas & Oil follow daily loads up & down, but oil is costly. store energy in Keep methane (& chemicals to groundwater) leaks from fracking to very low levels. Wind -Resource is many x total use: Growing 16-35%/year, Solar -Resource dwarfs total use. Growing 30+%/yr. Nuclear -new plants in China, India, US Southeast Water,Wood,Waste -Rivers will dwindle. More forestfires limit growth. Geothermal-big potential in US West, Ring of Fire, Italy Ocean- tides, waves, currents, thermal difference (surface vs deep) Renewable energy can easily provide 80-90% of US electricity by 2050. retail, for everyone: low at night, high by day, highest on hot afternoons. Use less. Scrub out the CO2 with oxyfuel or pre-/post-combustion process. To follow loads, car batteries,water uphill, flow batteries, compressed air,flywheels, hydrogen. US Plains, coasts: NC to ME, Great Lakes. it’s now cheaper than coal in many places. 5.6% of US MW Output peaks near when cooling needs peak. PV costs 6-15 ¢/kWh, thermal (with flat mirrors) 10¢. NREL, 2012

  48. Solutions - Personal Vehicles US cars get 23mpg. 7 Average 20. . Toyota started outsellingFord in the US & GM around the world. In 2014, new US cars & pickups averaged 26 mpg, vs 20 in 2007. . Hybridsalesaresoaring,. In 2008, new cars averaged 37-44 mpg in Europe, 45 in Japan. To cut US vehicle CO2 by 50% in 20 years is not hard. . GMalready did it in Europe. . Lighten up,downsize,don’t over-power engines.. Use CVTs, start-stop, VVT,hybrid-electric, diesel. . Use pickup trucks & vans only for workthat requires them. . Store wind on the road, with plug-ins & EVs. Pickups, vans& SUVs get 17. up to 94 mpg. EVs go up to 245 mi/charge. HOW? Ditch SUVs. Charge them up at night.

  49. Solutions -Efficient Buildings + At Home - Use ground source heat pumps. Better lights -compact fluorescents(CFLs) & LEDs. Energy Star appliances Insulation - high R-value inwalls & ceiling, Low flow showerheads, microwave ovens,trees,awnings, clotheslines,solar roofs Commercial - Use micro cogeneration, ground source heat pumps. Don’t over-light. Use LCD Energy Starcomputers. Usefree cooling (open intakes to night air),green roofs,solar roofs. Make ice at night. Melt it during the day Industrial - Energy $ impact the bottom line. Efficiency is generally good already. Case-specific process changes as energy prices rise. Turn off un-used lights. • – air conditioners, refrigerators, front load clothes washers honeycomb windowshades,caulking Use day-lighting,occupancy sensors, reflectors. Ventilate more withVariable Speed Drives. - for cold water to cool buildings. Facilityenergy managersdo their jobs. Use morecogeneration.

  50. Solutions - Personal Makeyourhome & office efficient. Drivean efficient car. Don’tdrive much over55 mph. Walk.(Behealthy!)Carpool. Buy thingsthatlast. Eatlessfeedlotbeef. Garden. Reduce, re-use, recycle. Ask Congress to price carbon. Don’t over-size a house. Don’t super size a vehicle. Combine errands, idle 10 seconds tops. Bicycle. Use bus,RR, subway. Fix them when they break. Less ishealthier! 1 calorie = 7-10 of grain. Move carbon from the air into the soil. Use cloth bags. Minimize packaging. Cut CO2 emissions 80+% by 2050. OR Tax carbon 3¢ / lb, rising 5% per year. Include tax creditsto take CO2OUTof the air.