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PLANNING FOR PUBLICATION EPH7112 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
CONTENTS • Motivation for publishing • Types of article writing • Publication check list • Writing retreat • Issues on authorship
1. Motivation For Publishing A document to report findings A way to verify findings A contribution to the advancement of science A mode of knowledge sharing A document of intellectual value A proof of authors’ scientific credibility
Contribution Papers to World Science (selected countries) Total of World Papers : 13,278,112
2. Types of Article Writing Types of article writing • Popular articles • Research proposal • Report writing • Thesis writing • Conference/ Proceeding articles • Journal articles (Non-SCI) • Journal articles (SCI) • Journal articles (Impact Factor)
Popular articles Symbiosis ISSN 1551-3426
Popular articles Synthesis, R&D Digest of UPM
Conference Proceeding Aerotech Conference ‘05
Non SCI Journal e.g. Jurnal Mekanikal Jurnal IEM Jurnal Teknologi
SCI Journal • Major current citation indexing services • Science Citation Index (SCI), and later expanding to produce the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) and the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) is now part of Thomson Scientific. (www.thomson.com OR scientific.thomson.com/products/wos/ ) • For the list of SCI and Non SCI, Elsevier publishes Scopus andScience Direct, available online only, which similarly combines subject searching with citation browsing and tracking in the sciences and social sciences. Other publishers : Taylor & Francis, SpringerLink, Emerald, Blackwell Synergy, etc.
SCI Journal (IF) Composite Structure Impact factor : 0.953
3. Publication Check List • Establish a list of journals (SCI, Non SCI, IF) • Develop a publication plan • Organize writing retreats • Editing and publication
ESTABLISHING LIST OF JOURNALS/CONFERENCES • Citation index Journal
ESTABLISHING LIST OF JOURNALS/CONFERENCES • Non Citation index Journal
ESTABLISHING LIST OF JOURNALS/CONFERENCES • Conferences
DEVELOPING PUBLICATION PLAN 1. Results Report Document - To be discussed further in the Workshop (Day 1) - 2. Publication Planning Table
4. ORGANIZING WRITING RETREATS During Before After Writing process
BEFORE • Identify who should go as writers and/or as reviewers • Identify the results to write about • Construct the title • Write the abstract in point forms • What (are you doing?) • Why (are you doing it?) • How (are you doing it?) • What (have you achieved?) • Identify and collect the references for critical review (refer Reference Compilation Index) • Arrange the groups e.g. based on the sub-groups in the lab. • Book the place, settle the logistics • Document: • 1. Individual Results Management forms • 2. Individual Results Reports forms • 3. K chart • 4. Publication Plan form • 5. Reference Compilation Index
DURING • Brief on the targets of the retreat e.g. one paper >75% completion for every participant • Write the Abstract • - Construct sentences based on the readily prepared points • Write the Introduction • State the Motivation factors (why what you are working on is important) • State the Problem Statements (problems/limitations of the existing system that you are trying to solve) • Provide the Critical Reviews (mention the existing solutions and their weaknesses/limitations) • State what you are doing i.e your Objectives (highlighting that you have solved/reduced the problems better than others. Use this as your punch-line, normally towards the end of Introduction)
Write the Theory (optional, but is compulsory if your results involve modification of the theory/model) • Provide the main equations relating to the parameters you are presenting • Describe how you have modified/improved the equations to suit to your design • Write the Designs or Setups • Describe how the design works i.e the working principle of the design • Describe the components used especially the important ones • Describe how the design is different from others (existing ones) • Highlight the design advantages i.e in terms of simplicity, cost etc. • Provide the specification of the system design/set-up in running texts or in t abular forms. • Describe the assumptions made in the setups (sometimes, certain devices are used to simulate real environments)
6. Write the Results and Analyses • Present the results through characterization curves and/or optimization curves • Describe the trend of the results • Explain the reasons by referring to the theories • Compare your results with the existing ones, and highlight your advantages • Justify if one of your results is inferior to others’ • 7. Write the Conclusion • Summarize the Introduction i.e. the Motivation, Problem Statements Critical Reviews, Objective in 3 sentences or less • Mention your achievements in general • Highlight your superior results in specific • ,.
8. Write the References • All statement of facts must be substantiated by your own results and/or others’ results (references) unless the facts are well known (like, E=MC2) • Ensure all references must be quoted in the text • It is customary to quote your own previous papers • 9. Name the authors (Refer the Guide to Technical Articles’ Authorship)
10. Identify the Journals/Conferences to send the articles to • Check the Citation list and the Impact Factors • Note that some Conference Proceedings are Cited and do have IF. • Some journals require mandatory fees, others don’t • Letters are typically speedier; Full Journals take longer processing time, and are increasingly considered as “traditional”. People used to think that Full Journals have better quality, now no longer, especially in fast changing fields. Note that NATURE articles are typically shorter than letters’. • Edit according to the format of the journals (refer Article Editing Indexing Guide) • 12. Update the status in the Publication Plan Form
AFTER • Complete the papers • Send completed papers to internal reviewers • Follow up with the reviewers • Send final papers to journals • Update the status in the Publication Plan • Document/tools: • 1. Article Editing Indexing Guide • 2. Publication Plan • 3. List of Journals
EDITING AND PUBLISHING • Establish Paper Editing Index • Writing technical papers for publication requires extensive reviewing and editing • It is common to lose track of what to do for which paper by whom. • One of the easiest ways is by indexing the filename of the soft copy version of the document. • A good filename will be short, concise and easily distinguishable.
EDITING AND PUBLISHING Samples - The index code • The proposed index code: XPiTWjEkY • X is writer's name (abbreviated), • Pi is the ith paper written by him/her, • T is the title of the paper in short • Wj is the jth time the paper has been written (in the process of correcting it), • Ek is the kth time the paper has been edited by an editor/supervisor, and • Y is the name of the reviewer (abbreviated).
EDITING AND PUBLISHING Example - The index code • The proposed index code: ASP7CW2E3EM • AS is writer's name (abbreviated), • P7 is the 7th paper written by him/her, • C is the title of the paper in short • W2 is the 2nd time the paper has been written (in the process of correcting it), • E3 is the 3rd time the paper has been edited by an editor/supervisor, and • EM is the name of the reviewer (abbreviated).
5. DEFINING AUTHORSHIP • Authors are “intellectual owners”* of the article • Authors are those who directly contribute to the intellects/knowledge contained in the paper • The author who contributes the most (intellectually) appears first, and so on so forth • Other contributors (financially, logistically, morally, physically, administratively, editorially, etc.) are not authors. They should be acknowledged differently. Note: The article’s writer may not be an author * As opposed to legal ownership
INTELLECTUAL CONTRIBUTIONS • Structured idea (not a simplistic, general idea) • Theoretical development • Data collection design (simulation, experiment, survey etc.) • Results analysis Note: Writing is NOT an intellectual contribution. It is an editorial contribution.
AUTHORS VS WRITERS • A writer is not necessarily an author • Authors are those who contributes intellectually (knowledge) while a Writer contributes editorially • The author who contributes the most should be the first author
1ST AUTHOR:THE MISCONCEPTIONS? Misconception 1: Students are the first author Misconception 2: Writer is the first author Reason: Generally a scholastic journal article is written by the main researcher him/her self. It is not common for researchers to hire a professional writer to write the article, thus the generalization that the writer is the first author Patents, Memoirs, and Biographies are examples of Document/articles written by professional writers (who are obviously not authors)
THE TEST An author must be able to intellectually explain the contents of the paper, at least from his contribution’s perspective …but someone who can explain about the paper may not necessarily be the author