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Robert Mills Gagn é (1916- 2002). Scholar Teacher Mentor. Career Highlights. High School in North Andover, MA 1937: A.B. in psychology, Yale University 1940: Ph.D. in psychology, Brown University 1940: Faculty, Connecticut College for Women

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robert mills gagn 1916 2002
Robert Mills Gagné (1916- 2002)
  • Scholar
  • Teacher
  • Mentor
career highlights
Career Highlights
  • High School in North Andover, MA
  • 1937: A.B. in psychology, Yale University
  • 1940: Ph.D. in psychology, Brown University
  • 1940: Faculty, Connecticut College for Women
  • 1941 – 45: U.S. Army – research in aviation psychology, perceptual abilities, and human engineering
  • 1945 – 49: Penn State and Connecticut College – research in transfer of training in multi-discrimination motor tasks
career highlights1
Career Highlights
  • 1949 – 1958: U.S. Air Force – director of research related to military training
  • 1958 – 1962: Professor, Princeton University – developed theory of learning hierarchies
  • 1958 – 1961: Consultant to U.S. Dept. of Defense
  • 1962 – 1965: Director of Research, American Institutes for Research
  • 1964 – 1966: Consultant to U.S. Dept. of Education
  • 1966 – 1969: Professor, U.C. Berkeley
  • 1969 – 1986: Florida State University
major contributions theory
Major Contributions: Theory
  • Created a unified theory of instruction *
  • Studied learning in real life situations
  • Bridged the paradigm shift between behavioral and cognitive learning psychology *
  • Influenced a generation of research and theory-building (e.g., David Merrill, Charlie Reigeluth)
  • Published 148 works (at least)
major contributions practice
Major Contributions: Practice
  • Profoundly influenced instructional design for K-12 education, military, and business/industry
  • Led major curriculum development projects
    • AAAS: Science – A Process Approach
    • University of MD: Mathematics Project
  • Founded and designed the instructional systems graduate program at Florida State University
  • Engineered the ISD Model (Systems Approach) *
instructional design models

Instructional Design Models

Five “Families”:

Behavioral

Cognitive (Information Processing)

Cognitive (Discovery)

Humanistic

Social

behavioral models
Behavioral Models
  • Reinforce it!
behavioral models1
Behavioral Models
  • Attend only to behavior (observable)
  • Specify behavior to be learned
  • Analyze final behavior into smaller components
  • Provide repeated practice and feedback
  • Use shaping techniques as needed
  • Provide reinforcement for correct responses
cognitive models information processing1
Cognitive Models(Information Processing)
  • Attend to internal learning processes as well as behavior
  • Compare learning to computer information processing (e.g., storage, retrieval)
  • Provide external support for each stage of internal processing: attention, expectancy, recall of related content, organization of content, storage, practice and feedback, retrieval, retention, transfer
isd features
ISD Features
  • Training is geared to specific needs.
  • Learning outcomes are specifiedin advance.
  • Solution is engineered, using research-based principles of learning and instruction.
  • Learning outcomes are measured.
  • Revisions are based on data.
isd addie steps and outputs
ISD “ADDIE” Steps and Outputs

(Medsker Version)

Analyze

Design

Develop

Implement

Evaluate

  • Performance Requirements
  • Training Requirements
  • Learning Maps
  • Objectives
  • Exercises & Tests
  • Strategies
  • Media Choices
  • Design Document
  • Draft Courseware
  • Formative Evaluation Results
  • Revised Courseware
  • Trained People
  • Training Results
  • Performance Results
who uses isd
Who Uses ISD?
  • U.S. Military Services
  • U.S. Federal Agencies
  • Large Businesses
  • Training and Consulting Firms
systematically designed instruction
Systematically Designed Instruction
  • Valid Meets a real need
  • Reliably Effective Consistently achieves objectives
  • Efficient Minimizes training time and cost
  • Documented Facilitates maintenance
gagn s theory of instruction
Gagné’s Theory of Instruction
  • Learning outcomes may be classified by types or domains, which cross subject matter disciplines.
  • Learning outcomes may be analyzed into component and prerequisite skills, which may be “mapped” to define optimal learning sequences.
  • Every complete act of learning involves predictable internal processes that may be supported by specific external instructional events.
  • Different learning outcomes require different conditions.
gagn s taxonomy verbal information
Gagné’s Taxonomy: Verbal Information
  • Knowing “what” or “that”
  • Being able to recite, state, tell, describe, or explain
  • Learning for recall
  • Challenge is aiding retention

A.K.A. “Declarative Knowledge”

gagn s taxonomy intellectual skills
Gagné’s Taxonomy: Intellectual Skills
  • Knowing “how”
  • Being able to classify, diagnose, solve, design, create…
  • Learning for transfer
  • Challenge is enhancing transfer

A.K.A. “Procedural Knowledge”

gagn s taxonomy attitudes
Gagné’s Taxonomy: Attitudes
  • Personal action choices based on beliefs, feelings, values
  • Choosing a course of action
  • Three parts: belief, feeling, tendency to act
  • Challenge is changing an established attitude
gagn s taxonomy motor skills
Gagné’s Taxonomy: Motor Skills
  • Performing a physical activity with smoothness and timing
  • Combines mental routines and physical skills
  • Challenge is improving accuracy, consistency, and/or speed
gagn s taxonomy cognitive strategies
Gagné’s Taxonomy: Cognitive Strategies
  • Managing one’s own thinking and learning
  • May be simple or complex
  • Often used in combination with other types of learning
  • Challenge is how to build and transfer

A.K.A. “Strategic Knowledge”

theory of instruction
Theory of Instruction
  • Learning outcomes may be classified by types or domains, which cross subject matter disciplines.
  • Learning outcomes may be analyzed into component and prerequisite skills, which may be “mapped” to define optimal learning sequences.
  • Every complete act of learning involves predictable internal processes that may be supported by specific external instructional events.
  • Different learning outcomes require different conditions.
instructional analysis
Instructional Analysis
  • Breakdown of a Task into its Learned Components

Procedural

Hierarchical

Do 

Analyze

Teach 

Teach

Analyze Design Develop Implement Evaluate

instructional analysis1
Instructional Analysis
  • Breakdown of a Task into its Learned Components

Combination

Procedural

Hierarchical

Analyze Design Develop Implement Evaluate

intellectual skills learning hierarchy
Intellectual Skills Learning Hierarchy

Higher-OrderRule

“Generate” Solution

Rule

Rule

“Demonstrate”Application of Rules

Concept

Concept

“Classify” Concept

instructional analysis benefits
Instructional Analysis Benefits
  • Complete Instruction
  • Lean, Efficient Instruction
  • Sequencing Guide
  • Formative Evaluation Guide
theory of instruction1
Theory of Instruction
  • Learning outcomes may be classified by types or domains, which cross subject matter disciplines.
  • Learning outcomes may be analyzed into component and prerequisite skills, which may be “mapped” to define optimal learning sequences.
  • Every complete act of learning involves predictable internal processes that may be supported by specific external instructional events.
  • Different learning outcomes require different conditions.
handcuffing video
Handcuffing Video

The Nine Events of Instruction

Click the video screen to start the movie.

theory of instruction2
Theory of Instruction
  • Learning outcomes may be classified by types or domains, which cross subject matter disciplines.
  • Learning outcomes may be analyzed into component and prerequisite skills, which may be “mapped” to define optimal learning sequences.
  • Every complete act of learning involves predictable internal processes that may be supported by specific external instructional events.
  • Different learning outcomes require different conditions.
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