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The Global Village: International and Comparative Media Systems. International Media Systems. Global Print Media – Newspapers General or financial The International Herald Tribune USA Today International WorldPaper The Financial Times of London The Economist The Wall Street Journal.

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international media systems
International Media Systems
  • Global Print Media – Newspapers
    • General or financial
    • The International Herald Tribune
    • USA Today International
    • WorldPaper
    • The Financial Times of London
    • The Economist
    • The Wall Street Journal
international media systems1
International Media Systems
  • Global Print Media – Wire Services
    • International flow of news dominated by global wire services
    • Reuters
    • Associated Press
    • Agence France Presse
    • New York Times Syndicate
    • Los Angeles Times Syndicate
international media systems2
International Media Systems
  • Global Print Media – Magazines
    • Reader’s Digest – 49 editions in 200 countries
    • Time (International)– 190 countries
    • Newsweek (International)– ½ M readers
    • Cosmopolitan – 41 countries
    • Popular Mechanics (Spanish version)

– Latin America

    • Business Week
international media systems3
International Media Systems
  • Global Broadcasting
  • Shortwave or partnerships with local FM
  • 150 countries broadcast internationally
    • BBC World Service
    • Voice of America
    • Radio China International
    • Deutsche Welle (“German Wave”)
    • Radio France International
    • Growing rapidly: global news, sports, and music channels (CNNi, CNBC, BBC World, MTV, ESPNi)
international media systems4
International Media Systems
  • Film and TV
  • Internationally, USA dominates
    • Box office (½ revenue of average film)
    • Videocassette and DVD ($20B+ in 2004)
    • TV programs (non-prime-time)
    • TV program format licenses (Jeopardy, Temptation Island)
  • Cross-border spillover
world media online
World Media Online
  • Web radio stations
  • Newspapers and magazines
    • New York Times Le Monde
    • Die Welt London Times
    • Asahi ShimbunSydney Morning Herald
    • Asia Week Beat
    • Tokyo JournalArt Bin
  • Email and newsgroups enable informal exchange of news and culture
  • WWW access not globally accessible
comparative media systems
Comparative Media Systems
  • Authoritarian Theory
    • 16th Century England
    • Parallel with development of printing press
    • The ruling elite guides the low-intelligence masses
    • Public dissent and criticism are a threat
    • Compliance of the press through
      • Licensing Censorship Exclusive printing rights
      • Punishment of government critics
comparative media systems1
Comparative Media Systems
  • Libertarian Theory
    • Diametrically opposed to authoritarian beliefs
    • Matched freewheeling, rugged early America
    • Assumes people are intelligent creatures
    • Government exists to serve the individual
    • Citizens need to hear all sides of an issue
    • Government serves best when it serves least
    • The press should be free from control
    • Four theories of the Press (1956)
comparative media systems2
Comparative Media Systems
  • Social Responsibility Theory
    • Press has right to criticize government
    • Press also has responsibility to preserve democracy
      • Properly informing the public
      • Responding to society’s needs and interests
    • Press not free to do as it pleases
    • Government may regulate press in the public interest (example: FCC and broadcasting)
    • Many Western nations use this approach
comparative media systems3
Comparative Media Systems
  • The Communist Theory
    • Media are owned by the people (represented by the state)
    • The purpose of the media is to support the Marxist system and achieve the goals of the state
    • Works best in a tightly controlled society
    • Example: use of spillover by BBC, VOA, CNN, and others into Communist countries
comparative media systems4
Comparative Media Systems
  • The Developmental Theory
    • Government can mobilize the media to serve national goals in economic and social development
    • Goals include:
    • Information must be managed by the government
    • Primarily used in non-democratic developing countries
    • Losing ground to the social responsibility approach

eradication of disease

economic self-sufficiency

political integration

raising literacy levels

comparative media systems5
Comparative Media Systems

Figure 17-1 Theories of Media-Government Relationships

comparative media systems6
Comparative Media Systems

Figure 17-2 Typology of Media Ownership and Control

comparative media systems7
Comparative Media Systems
  • Role of the media in various countries
    • Developmental – develop and build; support government; provide technical information
    • Communist – propaganda, persuasion, and education
    • Social responsibility – inform, entertain, government watchdog and adversary, consumer support, free marketplace of ideas
  • Economic Differences
comparative media systems8
Comparative Media Systems
  • Economic Differences
    • USA – advertising, little government support
    • Western Europe
      • Some indirect subsidies
      • Scandinavia – direct support of newspapers by political parties
      • U.K. – BBC is state-charted, independents sell advertising
    • Communist – direct support by government, plus advertising
    • Less-developed countries – developmental journalism
examples of other systems
Examples of Other Systems
  • Japan
    • Social responsibility model
    • 127M people; literacy nearly 100%
    • 120 newspapers with 69M total circulation
      • Yomiuri Shimbun Asahi Shimbun
    • Several news and business magazines
    • Nippon Hoso Kyokai patterned after BBC; yearly license fee imposed on all TV sets
    • 5 commercial channels and 2 cable
    • Pioneers in DBS and HDTV
    • Media-rich overall
examples of other systems1
Examples of Other Systems
  • Mexico
    • Developmental model
    • 106M people; literacy rate 90%
    • 300 daily papers with 10M total circulation
      • Excelsior (Mexico City)
    • 200 magazines, best-known is Vanidades (Televisia)
    • Government has controlled media through
      • Supply of newsprint Broadcasting permits
      • Bribing journalists
    • Radio and TV based on U.S. system
    • Produces telenovelas for Latin America
    • Significant media content flow to USA
examples of other systems2
Examples of Other Systems
  • China
    • Communist model
    • 2000 newspapers with 200M circulation
    • Several national newspapers
      • People’s Daily Xinmin Evening News China Daily
    • 100 financial newspapers; 10,000 magazines
    • Rural population relies on radio
    • 650 radio stations reach 95% of population
    • TV penetration at 90%
    • Limits on imports, foreign news, satellite dishes
    • Internet penetration 7%