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Reproduction in the Cat. Feline Physiology and Reproduction. Reproduction in the Queen. Average age of puberty in the queen: 10 months (range 4-18). Queen is seasonally polyestrous breeder in that photoperiod controls the period of cyclicity.

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slide4

Feline Physiology and Reproduction

Reproduction in the Queen

Average age of puberty in the queen:10 months (range 4-18).

Queen is seasonally polyestrous breeder in that photoperiod

controls the period of cyclicity.

Breeding season: is from March to September. Actually split

seasons with January to March and August to October.

Queen is anestrous during late fall and winter.

Household queens can cycle during winter with lights in house

giving 12 to 14 hours of light.

slide5

Estrous Cycle

Proestrus:

Duration one day or less

Characteristic: Rolling, head rubbing, vocalization,

crouching often with rear quarters elevated, treading

movement of feet but still rejecting male.

Estrous Cycle of Queen

Reproductive cycle in the queen is similar to other species

with one unique difference. Queen requires copulation to

stimulate ovulation.

Average length of the estrous cycle is 14 to 21 days. Estrus

will last approximately 7 days followed by a period of

non-receptivity for 10 days if no mating occurs.

slide6

Estrus: Duration is 6 to 7 days.

  • Characteristic: Increase intensity of proestrus activity
  • but will now accept male. Acceptance allows mating
  • with deviation of tail to one side and permission of
  • Tom to grasp her neck, mount and copulate
  • Metestrus: Duration is 1 to 2 weeks
    • Characteristic: Following non-ovulation (no mating)
  • there is no acceptance of male and loss of signs of heat.
  • Psuedopregnancy:
    • Sterile mating induces ovulation of follicles and formation of CL release progesterone which is maintained for 35-45 days
reproductive tract
Reproductive Tract

Oviduct

Ovarian Bursa

Ovary

Bladder

Uterine Horn

Uterine Body

Cerivx

Urethra

Vagina

Vestibule

Clitoris

Vulva

slide9

Hormonal Changes during Estrous Cycle and Pregnancy

Copulation

LH

Parturition

EstradiolProgesterone

Heat

Heat

10 20 30 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Days

slide10

Mating of Queen induces LH surge for Ovulation

  • Mating by male induces ovulation but it takes approximately
  • a minimum of 4 matings to induce ovulation in queen.
  • Male may breed 10x/hour (WOW!!!)
  • The penial spines on the cranial end of the Tom’s penis
  • induces the stimulation of the vagina for the LH surge to
  • ovulate.

Duration of Gestation in Queen:

63-66 days

Pregnancy Diagnosis:

Abdominal Palpation: 20-30 days

termination of pregnancy
Termination of Pregnancy
  • Cabergoline was given orally (n=5; 50 µg/cat/day) for five consecutive days.
  • Prostaglandin F2 was administered SC (n=5; 2.5 mg/cat/day) for five consecutive days.
  • Both cabergoline (n=5; 50 µg/cat/day) and prostaglandin F2. (2.5 mg/cat/day) were administered.

Ahmadzadeh et al, 2000

slide12

Anatomy of Tom

Bulbourethral

Gland

Scrotum

Kidney

Rectum

Testis

Ureter

Bladder

Glans Penis

Ductus

Deferens

Prostate

Gland

Cornified

Spines

Urethra

Os Penis

Glans Penis

reproductive anatomy of tomcat
Reproductive Anatomy of Tomcat

Ductus Deferens

Ureter

Scrotum

Glans

Penis

Urethra

Prostate

Gland

Bladder

slide14
Average age at: 9 months.

Semen Characteristics:

Volume: 0.04 ml

Total Sperm 15-130 x 106

Motility 60-95%

slide15

Breeding and Mating Behavior

  • Cats are nocturnal
  • Female in heat crouches, rolls
  • stamps hind feet and raises pelvis
  • Male detects female through
  • pheromones
  • Female bends tail to one side and male bites back of neck to insert penis.
  • When penis is withdrawn, female will move forward and give out the “copulation cry”.
  • The copulation cry is thought to be caused by the penial spines as
  • the penis is withdrawn.
  • Breeding is repeated several times
ovary in bursa
Ovary in Bursa

Ovarina Bursa

Follilcles

Oviduct

Opening to Bursa

Ovary

Uterine Horn

scrotum and penis
Scrotum and Penis

Penis

Scrotum

Note opening to penis in the tomcat is below scrotum

scrotum and testis
Scrotum and Testis

Caput

Epididymis

Testis

Corpus

Epididymis

Scrotum

penis and pelvic region
Penis and Pelvic Region

Ductus

Deferens

Bulbourethral

Gland

Glans

Penis

Bladder

Urethra

Penis

Crus

Penis

Prostate

Gland

testis
Testis

Pampiniform

Plexus

Ductus

Deferens

Caput

Epididymis

Corpus

Epididymis

Testis

Cauda

Epididymis

penis and accessory glands
Penis and Accessory Glands

Prostate

Gland

Bulbourethral

Gland

Glans

Penis

Penis

Penial

Spines

Urethra

Crus

Penis