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Nimbus buv and toms data substantiate the atmospheric ozone depletion concerns

Nimbus BUV and TOMS Data Substantiate the Atmospheric Ozone Depletion Concerns

Arlin Krueger

Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology

University of Maryland, Baltimore County

Nimbus buv and toms data substantiate the atmospheric ozone depletion concerns1
Nimbus BUV and TOMS Data Substantiate the Atmospheric Ozone Depletion Concerns

  • By

  • S Ahmad, Z Ahmad, P Anderson, E Beach, D. Becker, A Belmont, PK Bhartia, L Bowlin, R Browning, D. Burchfield, W. Byerly, E Canevari, B Cano, S Carn, R Casey, G Chalef, S Chandra, P Collins, M Comberiate, C Cote, S Cox, D Cunold, JV Dave, C Davis, M Deland, S Doiron, J. Dowser, J Elliot, R Farquhar, A.J. Fleig, D. Flittner, L Flynn, M Foreman, J Frederick, J Gatlin, P Ginoux, J Gleason, C Gordon, D Gordon, A.E. Green, X Gu, B Guenther, S. Guenther, R. Hering, D Harrison, U Hartmann, DF Heath, BD Henderson, B Herman, J Herman, R. Hertel, C Hestor, M Hinman, R Hudson, J Hurley, R Ignasiak, W.L. Imhof, G Jaross, T Jennings, A Kaveeshwar, K Klenk, R. Kobiachi, G. Kobiachi, M. Kobiachi, N Koep-Baker, N Krotkov, *A Krueger, G Labow, D Larko, K Lee, J Leithch, J Leithch, J Lienesch, B Lowry, CL Mateer, C McKenzie, R McPeters, D. Merrill, T Miles, A J Miller, P. Mitzen, B Monosmith, G. Montwell, R Nagatoni, P Newman, W Nickum, A Oakes, R Ormsby, N Oslik, B Palmer, H Park, V Pavanasaisam, S Plageman, N. Preketes, H Press, J Purcell, B Raines, S Ray, H Reed, S Reed, H Reid, HB Roeder, M. Ruecker, E Rutkowski, R Salikov, S Schaefer, B Schlesinger, J Schneider, C Schnetzler, M Schoeberl, D Schuster, C Seftor, M Shapiro, R Shapiro, R Sipes, J Sisala, P Smith, I Sprod, R Stevenson, J Stokes, R Stolarski, T Swissler, S Taylor, O Torres, S Truong, K Venkatakrishna, L Walters, S Weiland, R White, C Wong, J Ziemke

  • * speaker

What did we know about ozone before nimbus buv and toms
What did we know about ozone before Nimbus BUV and TOMS? Depletion Concerns

  • Theory: Chapman proposed photochemistry of oxygen could explain ozone.

  • Observations:

    • Total ozone - Dobson measured latitude and seasonal variations; suspected meteorology produced variability.

    • Vertical ozone distribution - balloons showed effects of weather; rockets supported photochemical model.

  • Laboratory: Chemists said nitrogen radicals could destroy ozone in catalytic cycle.

    • Chemical rate coefficients too poorly known to decide if nitrogen cycle worked in the atmosphere.

    • Halogens were even better catalysts than nitrogen or hydrogen.

Backscatter uv origins 1970 the nimbus 4 buv
Backscatter UV Origins Depletion Concerns1970: The Nimbus-4 BUV

  • Ozone profile

    • First satellite experiments had measured ozone profile

    • Instrument calibration established from coincident rocket soundings

  • Total ozone

    • Sparse Dobson spectrophotometer network

    • Inter-instrument calibration errors large

    • CP Cuddapah used Nimbus 3 IRIS data for first total ozone from space

  • BUV Instrument

    • NCAR proposal (1965) Dave and Mateer

    • Instrument:

      • Goddard Space Flight Center:

        Heath (Tech. Officer - Krueger)

      • Beckman Instruments Henderson, Roeder, Meloy, Reid

    • Solar diffuser plate for calibration

    • Optimized wavelengths

    • Total ozone sounding method

G.P. Anderson, et al., Proceedings, Symposium sur l’Ozone Atmospherique, 1-7 Sept. 1968, Monaoco, pp239-243.

A.J. Krueger, Proceedings, Symposium sur l’Ozone Atmospherique, 1-7 Sept. 1968, Monaoco, pp225-229.

Buv data confirmed catalytic cycle in ozone chemistry
BUV data confirmed catalytic cycle in ozone chemistry Depletion Concerns

  • August 1972 solar proton event.

    • High energy protons produce nitric oxide in upper stratosphere.

    • Paul Crutzen predicted decrease of ozone.

    • BUV data show 20% decrease.

  • Ozone depletion in auroral oval proved catalytic cycle was controlling ozone.

    • Opened the possibility of catalytic loss of ozone by halogens.

Ozone above 4 mb (37 km) vs day number

Heath, Krueger & Crutzen, Science, 1977

Total ozone from space dave and mateer
Total ozone from space: Depletion ConcernsDave and Mateer

Forward model: Dave’s UV multiple-scattering radiative transfer model

Inverse model: Mateer

Total ozone mapping origins 1978 the nimbus 7 toms

Coverage: Depletion Concerns

Daily global survey

Avoid missed event issues by observing:

every location

every day

Ground resolution:

Limited by 1970’s data rate, data storage

Resolve jet streams

Identify local ozone perturbations


Use BUV monochromator

Use BUV total ozone wavelengths

Share SBUV diffuser plate for common calibration

Concept - GSFC

proposal (1972) Krueger

Merge with SBUV Heath

Instrument - Beckman/ Perkin Elmer/Orbital Sciences

Roeder, Lu, Macenka

Algorithm - STX

Mateer, Kaveeshwar, Bhartia

Total ozone mapping origins1978: The Nimbus-7 TOMS

Toms buv global coverage survey vs sample
TOMS & BUV Global Coverage Depletion ConcernsSurvey vs. Sample



Global total ozone maps
Global total ozone maps Depletion Concerns

  • TOMS Missions

  • Nimbus-7: 11/1/ 1978 - 5/6/1993

  • Meteor 3: 8/22/1991 - 11/24/1994

  • ADEOS: 8/17/1996 - 6/28/1997

  • Earth Probe: 7/15/1996 - present

Formation of a kona low
Formation of a Kona Low Depletion Concerns

Polar ozone depletion
Polar ozone depletion Depletion Concerns

  • Environmental concerns overwhelmed meteorological research.

  • British Antarctic Survey (Farman, et al.,1985) pointed out steep decline in 25-year ozone record over Halley Bay Dobson station; attributed it to chlorine from CFC’s.

  • TOMS found large ozone loss in Antarctic-size hole (Bhartia et al, 1986; Stolarski, et al., 1986). Dynamic vs chemical cause disputed.

  • In-situ data from NASA DC-8 and ER2 aircraft found enhanced ClO from heterogeneous reactions of ClONO2 and HCl on polar stratospheric clouds.

  • Similar ozone losses found in Arctic.

The antarctic ozone hole
The Antarctic Ozone Hole Depletion Concerns

R. McPeters and Scientific Visualization Studio

Polar ozone depletion antarctic ozone hole and the montreal protocol
Polar ozone depletion Depletion ConcernsAntarctic ozone hole and the Montreal Protocol

  • Images of rapid springtime ozone loss over Antarctica each year lent credibility to environmental concerns

  • Progressive annual deepening produced urgency

Newman, Stolarski, Schoeberl, Krueger….

Antarctic ozone hole
Antarctic Ozone Hole Depletion Concerns

Depth and Area of Ozone Hole measured daily

Global ozone trends ozone depletion and the sbuv toms calibrations
Global Ozone Trends Depletion ConcernsOzone depletion and the SBUV/TOMS calibrations

  • Nimbus-7 TOMS shared SBUV diffuser plate

  • Diffuser reflectance and BRDF change with solar exposure

  • Model-based relative calibrations developed (Pair justification, spectral discrimination)

  • New TOMS instruments used triple diffuser carousel with different exposure times to infer degradation

GSFC: McPeters, Hollandsworth-Frith, Herman, Stolarski, Jaross, Seftor

Impact of buv toms
Impact of BUV & TOMS Depletion Concerns

  • Catalytic ozone destruction accepted by scientific community (1977).

  • Ozone hole images and ozone trends convince public of danger of CFC’s (1986).

  • Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer signed (1987).

  • Nobel Prize in chemistry awarded to Crutzen, Rowland, and Molina (1995).

  • CFC production phased out.

Beyond total ozone

TOMS data products Depletion Concerns

Total ozone

Ground/cloud reflectivity

Total sulfur dioxide


optical depth

effective radius or single scattering albedo

Tropospheric ozone

UVB fluxes


Air chemistry


Eruption processes

Aviation hazards

Climate change

dust, smoke

volcanic ash & sulfate

Weather forecasting

Model initialization

Upper air winds


Surface UV radiation

Air quality

Beyondtotal ozone…..

Tracking volcanic sulfur dioxide clouds
Tracking volcanic sulfur dioxide clouds Depletion Concerns

Rapid drift of volcanic clouds:

Difficult air traffic problem

Difficult validation problem

Krueger, Walters, Schnetzler, Bluth, Carn, Schaefer, Doiron, Sprod

25 years of so 2 mass from volcanic eruptions
25 years of SO Depletion Concerns2 mass from volcanic eruptions

Carn, et al., Volcanic eruption detection by the TOMS instruments, Geol. Soc. Special Publ., 213, 177-202, 2004

Absorbing aerosols smoke mineral dust and volcanic ash

Aerosols change the wavelength dependence of scattered light Depletion Concerns

Compare observed and model Rayleigh spectra to get aerosol signal

Low UV reflectivity of soil and water makes detection easy over land and ocean

Absorbing aerosols Smoke, mineral dust, and volcanic ash

Herman, Torres, Bhartia, Krotkov, Prospero

Tropospheric column ozone

Residual between TOMS total ozone and MLS stratospheric column

High Atlantic values due to biomass burning, lightning, and Walker circulation

Tropospheric column ozone

Fishman, Chandra, Ziemke …

Conclusions column

  • BUV and TOMS surpassed all expectations

    • Long life missions due to excellent engineering by Beckman Instruments and dedication of GSFC satellite operations teams

    • Algorithm development, instrument calibration, and data processing successful due to GSFC Ozone Processing Team

    • Broad use of data due to high quality daily global census, yet compact datasets

  • Impacts on geosciences and environmental controls are far reaching

Ozone theory
Ozone Theory column

  • Sydney Chapman proposed oxygen photochemistry driven by solar UV.

    • O2 + hn --> O + O (1)

    • O + O2 + M --> O3 + M (2)

    • O3 + hn --> O + O2 (3)

    • O3 + O --> 2 O2 (4)

  • Chemists knew that nitrogen and hydrogen radicals could catalytically destroy ozone in the lab. For example, NO can destroy ozone:

    • NO + O3 --> NO2 + O2

    • NO2 + O --> NO + O2

  • Other radicals are H, OH, Cl, or Br.