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## CS 312 – Lecture 28

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**CS 312 – Lecture 28**• Continuations • Probably the most confusing thing you’ve seen all semester… • Course summary • Life after CS 312**Continuations**fn(z:bool) => if z then ~x else x fn(a: int)=>a fn(a: int)=>~a • SML/NJ has ability to capture a control context as a value: a continuation • Continuation = “the rest of the program” • Example: if x<0 then ~x else x**Continuations**fn(z:bool) => if z then ~x else x • SML/NJ has ability to capture a control context as a value: a continuation • Continuation = “the rest of the program” • Example: if x<0 then ~x else x • So we can rewrite the above code as (fn(z:bool) => if z then ~x else x) (x < 0)**Continuations in ML**• In CPS, functions don’t return – they just pass their value to another function. • Open SMLofNJ.Cont: ‘a contis a continuation expecting a value of type‘a throw: ‘a cont -> ‘a -> ‘b throws control to continuation, never comes back throw c vmeans: “You are c. Here is value v for you, take it and take the control flow too; I’ve done my job and I will disappear, so don’t come back to me with your result.”**Continuations in ML**callcc : (‘a cont->`a)->`a callcc f invokes f passing it the current continuation callcc f means: “I will now pass control to f, so that f can perform some computation." • throw = sending a value to a continuation • callcc = sending a continuation to a function When f is done, it will send something of type `a to the continuation it received. • directly, using a throw, or indirectly, with another callcc So, the continuation must have type `a cont and f will have type (`a cont -> `a). In the end, it will be as though the callcc f had returned `a.**Example**if (x < 0) then ~x else x One way to write it in Continuation Passing Style: let fun f (x: int) (c: int cont): int = throw c (~x) fun g (x: int) (c: int cont): int = throw c (x) fun t (y: bool*int as (z, x)) (c: int cont): int = if z then callcc (f x) else callcc (g x) fun h (x: int) (c: int cont): int = callcc ( t ((x<0), x)) in callcc (h ~10 ) end**Handling errors**• Can be used in place of exceptions to send control to an arbitrary place let fun g(n: real) (errors: int option cont) : int option = if n < 0.0 then throw errors NONE else SOME(Real.trunc(Math.sqrt(n))) fun f (x:int) (y:int) (errors: int option cont): int option = if y = 0 then throw errors NONE else SOME(x div y+valOf(g 10.0 errors)) in case callcc(f 13 3) of NONE => "runtime error" | SOME(z) => "Answer is "^Int.toString(z) end**First-class continuations**• Can store continuations for future use! let val cref: int cont option ref = ref NONE fun f(c: int cont): int = (cref := SOME(c); 5) in callcc f; case !cref of NONE => "finished" | SOME(co) => throw co 4 end**Continuations - summary**• Control context is encoded as a value and passed around in the program • Can be used to transfer control flow to arbitrary points in the program • related feature 1: gotos in low-level code • related feature 2: setjmp/longjmp in C • useful for exceptions • useful in compilers and interpreters • "You need to learn continuations about three times before they really start making sense."**What happened in CS 312?**• Design and specification of programs • modules and interfaces • documenting functions and ADTs • programming in functional style • testing • Data structures and algorithms • collections • graphs • showing correctness and complexity • Programming languages • Features and methodologies • models of evaluation • implementation**Life after SML**• 312 is not about SML or even about functional programming • Lessons apply to Java, C, C++, etc.**Design**• Break up your program into modules with clearly defined interfaces (signatures) • Use abstract data types (data abstractions) • Good interfaces are narrow, implementable, but adequate • Avoid stateful abstractions, imperative operations unless compelling justification • Testing strategy and test cases: coverage**Specification**• Good specifications: clear, simple, concise, accurate • Think about your audience • Avoid over-specification • Abstraction barrier: user should not need to know implementation/representation • Convince someone that every spec is met • Specify representation invariants and abstraction functions**Data structures and algorithms**• Collections (ordered and unordered) • Sets, maps • Lists, arrays • Hash tables • Binary search trees (red-black, splay, B-trees) • Priority queues/heaps • Graphs • BFS, DFS, Dijkstra • CS 482 and 472**Data structures and algorithms**• String and regular-expression matching • CS 381/481 • Mutable vs. immutable data structures • Locality • Everywhere (theoretical and applied courses)**Correctness and complexity**• Using specifications, invariants to reason about correctness • Constructing, solving recurrence relations • Worst-case run time, average case run time, amortized run time • Proofs by induction • CS 482**Programming languages**• Features • Higher-order functions • Explicit refs • Recursive types and functions • Lazy vs. eager evaluation • Concurrency • Evaluation models (semantics) • Substitution • Environments and closures • Implementation • Type checking and type inference • Memory management, garbage collection • CS 411, 412