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Education Technology . Understanding and Promoting Interaction in the Classroom. UNIVERSITY LEVEL. Ph.D. Defense Steven A. Wolfman Computer Science & Engineering University of Washington. The Blackboard.

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understanding and promoting interaction in the classroom

Education Technology

Understanding and Promoting Interaction in the Classroom

UNIVERSITY LEVEL

Ph.D. Defense

Steven A. Wolfman

Computer Science & Engineering

University of Washington

the blackboard
The Blackboard

“…in the winter of 1813 & '14 … I attended a mathematical school kept in Boston…On entering [the] room, we were struck at the appearance of an ample Black Board suspended on the wall… I had never heard of such a thing before.” [Samuel J. May, 1855]

BENEFITS: successful ed tech

CHALLENGES: few such successes

LEVERAGE PNT: public mediating artifact

BIG EXCEPTION: PowerPoint

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

mediating artifact vygotsky
Mediating Artifact [Vygotsky]

An external object or structure that participates in cognition by supporting or shaping thought.

Vygotsky: thought is social

DISTRIBUTED COGNITION

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slides as mediating artifact
Slides as Mediating Artifact
  • In the classroom:
    • facilitate communication
    • structure discussion
  • Outside the classroom:
    • used as memory aid
    • used as study guide
  • Across terms:
    • reify course knowledge

Persistent context for communication!

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

thesis question
Thesis Question

How can computer technology exploit the mediating nature of presentation slides to support and shape interactive learning and teaching?

UNIVERSITY LEVEL

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

research history
Research History

Distance & Large Class Studies

ClassroomPresenter

ClassroomFeedbackSystem

Gestural Modelof Ink

Feedback Patterns

Structured Interaction Presentation system

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

design experiment methodology brown
Design Experiment Methodology [Brown]

Theoretical framework

Class studies

Systemdesign

Evaluation & user-centered design

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Classroom Presenter
  • Classroom Feedback System (CFS) and feedback patterns
  • Structured Interaction Presentation System (SIP)
  • Conclusions

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

classroom presenter goals
Classroom Presenter Goals

PETTT studies suggest like: organization / preparation

  • Maintain strengths of slideware (organization, preparation, sharing, execution)
  • Mitigate weaknesses of slideware(inflexibility, immobility, passivity)
  • Secure classroom adoption
  • Prepare for more ambitious systems

Prelim studies indicate need: flexibility/contextual writing

Explore slides as mediating artifact

Response to dist stud: INK in CONTEXT

TRANS: benefit from separating views (fract med art)

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slide10
Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

benefit from separating views (fract med art)

slide11

Instructor view with notes

Displayed view without notes

COMPARE WRITTEN NOTES WITH INK!

innovations from user centered design
Innovations from User-Centered Design
  • Instructor notes
  • Filmstrip and slide previews
  • “Whiteout”
  • “TV Talk Show” Tablet
  • Collective brainstorming

Flexibility/interaction enabled by exploiting:

SEPARATION OF VIEWS, INK IN CONTEXT, SLIDES AS MED ART

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

classroom deployments
Classroom Deployments

Surveyed since Spring ’02:

  • 37 courses
  • 21 instructors
  • 2,000+ students
  • CSE courses: introductory to Master’s level
  • UW, U. of Virginia, & U. of San Diego

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

survey results
Survey Results
  • Positive comments and repeat use by instructors
  • Instructor survey: N = 9
  • Student surveys: N = 479

Omits all project participants.

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

contributions presenter
Contributions (Presenter)
  • Combined strengths of slides w/increased flexibility, mobility, potential for interaction
  • Developed features that exploit slides as mediating artifact:
    • Ink in context
    • Separation of views
  • Secured broad adoption
  • Established basis for student extensions

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

outline16
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Classroom Presenter
  • Classroom Feedback System (CFS) and feedback patterns
  • Structured Interaction Presentation System (SIP)
  • Conclusions

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

cfs goals
CFS Goals
  • Understand challenges to interaction
  • Develop system exploiting slides as mediating artifact to respond to challenges
  • Evaluate impact of feedback system
  • Understand how feedback system changes interaction

NOT FOCUS today.

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

challenge to interaction feedback lag
Challenge to Interaction:Feedback Lag

A student hesitates to pose a question until the instructor finishes a point. When the instructor moves on, the question seems out of place and is left unasked.

  • EVIDENCE: Survey/focus group responses (3/12 in pilot; 5/11 in final)
  • Lagged questions in video archives; Personal experience
  • TRANS: built CFS in response to challenges WE identified like this one

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

leaving feedback on current slide
Leaving Feedback on Current Slide

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slide20

Leaving Feedback on Last Slide

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

instructor view
Instructor View

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

retrospective feedback

So, did it work?

“Retrospective” Feedback

Students’ response (n=12; 7 sessions; 150 students total):

  • 29 episodes of retrospective feedback
  • CFS helped all who reported feedback lag

Instructor’s response:

  • Retro. feedback is important; often responded
  • Retro. feedback upset pacing

Imagine n=150!

Adoption lessons for classroom tech.

Not enough retrospect

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

prospective feedback
“Prospective” Feedback

What if a student leaves feedback ahead of the discussion?

“…if I’m smooth enough… the class will just think ‘Oh, he’s going to talk about [that] now.’ … [To them,] here’s something that for some reason I decided to talk about towards the end of the slide.”

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

prospective feedback episode
Prospective Feedback Episode

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

contributions cfs
Contributions (CFS)
  • Identified interaction challenges
  • Proposed slide context as interaction medium
  • Developed contextual feedback system
  • Established potential for student feedback
  • Discovered novel interaction patterns
    • retrospective feedback: addressing feedback lag
    • prospective feedback: enabled by computer-mediated communication

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

outline26
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Classroom Presenter
  • Classroom Feedback System (CFS) and feedback patterns
  • Structured Interaction Presentation System (SIP)
  • Conclusions

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

conductor of performances model
“Conductor-of-Performances” Model

Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) has been “a move from ‘sage-on-the-stage’ … to ‘guide-by-the-side’”.

New CSCL systems will be “much more like the ‘conductor-of-performances’ for an orchestra: students … [will contribute] to an overall performance.”

[Roschelle & Pea]

Leader-of-theater?

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

goals of structured interaction presentation system sip
Goals of Structured Interaction Presentation System (SIP)
  • Mitigate slides’ passivity, oversimplification
  • Maintain intuitive, flexible design
  • Explore enabled interactions
  • Understand how integrated exercises affect the classroom

Support the design, use, sharing, and reflection on the “orchestra’s” score.

interactive exercises +rich student data

w/PPT-style design

+ widgets

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slide29

EXPLAINING SIP “by example”

Experimental class on “Risk Assessment”

24 “students”

50 minutes

6 SIP exercises

Took ~1 hour to convert static => interactive

Designed INSIDE PPT USING SIP, etc.

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

sip architecture
SIP Architecture

Presenter + SIP exercises

Presentation

design

environment

Instructor view

SQL back-end for reliability/archival reuse.

Presentation/Widgetdatabase

Viewer

scrnsht

Viewer

scrnsht

Interactive widget designenvironment

Viewer

scrnsht

Student views

Pluggable widgets. Support interactive version of PPT vision.

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slide31

REMIND: exercises from experimentalclass; REAL DATA

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slide32

REMIND: exercises from experimentalclass; REAL DATA

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slide33
Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction
distributed human computation dhc
Distributed Human Computation (DHC)
  • Are these on the same or distinct topics?
  • Which would you rather discuss?

Of those who died from receiving the vaccine, what percentage had compro-mised immune systems?

What are the death rates for specific groups who received this vaccine?

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slide35
Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction
dhc results instructor s view
DHC Results: Instructor’s View

Group “winners”

Group members

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

experimental class results
Experimental Class Results
  • Interaction analysis (video/audio/logs): substantial engagement by students
  • Student survey results
    • Factors supporting interaction: highlights particular strengths of integration
    • Factors hindering interaction: highlights important design lessons

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

interaction analysis

98% participation in SIP exercises

4-7 interactions reported/student (median)

3 recorded voicings/student (72 total)

Interaction Analysis

68% K-12norm

teacher talk

(62%)

student talk

(15%)

studentdiscussion

(13%)

studentthinking

(5%)

other

(5%)

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

factors supporting interaction n 18

78% cited supporting factors EXCLUDING NOVELTY

Factors Supporting Interaction (n=18)

“anonymity encouraged honest participation”

“I felt as though I … didn’t have much choice but to participate … I think this is a good thing.”

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

factors hindering interaction n 18

50% cited aspect hindering interaction

Factors Hindering Interaction (n=18)

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

contributions sip
Contributions (SIP)
  • Proposed “score” as role of slides as mediating artifact in “orchestra” CSCL model
  • Developed prototype SIP system
  • Designed novel interactive exercises (e.g., DHC, “sampled quiz”)
  • Identified advantages and pitfalls of integrated interactivity

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Developed and evaluated widely-adopted Classroom Presenter system
  • Developed and evaluated Classroom Feedback System
  • Developed and evaluated Structured Interaction Presentation System

Demonstrated how to exploit slides as mediating artifact across all three systems (e.g., separated views, contextual feedback, “forced” participation)

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

related systems
Related Systems

DISCUSS HOW CP/CFS/SIP FIT IN

  • Ubiquitous Computing:
    • eClass/Classroom 2000 [Abowd & Brotherton]
    • ActiveClass [Griswold, Ratto, Truong, et al.]
    • Cell-phone feedback [Brittain]
  • Education/Educational Technology:
    • ClassTalk [Dufresne]
    • Debbie/DyKnow [Berque]
    • WILD [Roschelle & Pea]
  • HCI: Pebbles [Myers]

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

related pedagogy
Related Pedagogy
  • Active learning [Bonwell & Eison]
  • Active learning in CS [McConnell]
  • Classroom Assessment Techniques “CATs” [Angelo & Cross]
  • CATs in CS [Schwarm & VanDeGrift]
  • Collaborative Learning [Johnson & Johnson]

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
  • Richard Anderson and the Committee
  • Rachel Pottinger
  • Education and Educational Technology Group
  • Microsoft Research LST Group
  • Experiment participants
  • Faculty, staff, and students of UW CSE
  • Intel, MERL, Microsoft, and NSF for funding
  • Everyone

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

modern pedagogy vs modern practice

WARNING: overgeneralization, but borne out by research

Modern Pedagogy vs. Modern Practice

Opportunity for audience

participation?

active learning

lecture

student-directed

instructor-dominated

interactive

disconnected

participatory

passive

~80-90% lectures Thielens, 1987

Many ways to resolve tension: reduce class size, retrain instructors, etc.

QUOTE ON RQ SLIDE

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

pedagogy of active learning
Pedagogy of Active Learning
  • Encourage “connected” learning
    • Constructivism [Bruner]
    • Social learning [Lave]
  • Recapture flagging attention
    • Attention studies [Stuart & Rutherford]
    • Heart rate/memory [Bligh]
    • Skin conductivity [Picard]
  • Address varied learning styles
    • Index of Learning Styles [Felder & Silverman]
    • Bloom’s taxonomy

Smiley plot

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

large class challenges

Bruner (constr.) Lave (soc. Learning)

  • Attention studies [Stuart & Rutherford]
  • Heart rate/memory [Bligh]
  • Skin conductivity [Picard]
  • ILS [Felder & Silverman]
  • Bloom’s taxonomy
Large class challenges
  • Maintaining attention
  • Communication/Feedback
  • Spontaneous discussion
  • Management of class activities

CFS: 2.4 voicngs/class, 90-120 studs

Tech problems in distance

Our experience & McConnell

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slides as externalization mediating artifact
Slides as Externalization/Mediating Artifact

Saljo: the significance of new technologies does not lie in their enhancing learning in a linear sense… the important point about new technologies is that they, if they are powerful enough, transform basic features of how people communicate knowledge and skills in society and how information is organised. In this sense, new media may imply that learning will become different.

Technologies are ultimately about the regulation and improvement of human relationships

Draw mental arith–

paper and pencil – mem

Elec calculator --alg:

communicates in familiar

symbolic representation

HK Jade market : comm burden

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slide51

CP

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slideware strengths weaknesses
Strengths

Organization [PETTT]

Preparation [PETTT]

Sharing [Bligh]

Easy execution [Bligh]

Weaknesses

Passivity [PETTT]

Simplified ideas [Tufte]

Inflexibility [VanDeGrift]

Immobility

Slideware Strengths/Weaknesses

Preliminary studies indicated instructors needed: flexibility and contextual writing

PETTT studies suggest students like: organization and preparation.

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slide previews with navigation
Slide previews with navigation

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slide54

CFS

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

design experiment brown
Design Experiment [Brown]
  • Discover what inhibits interaction
  • Understand what makes a good design
  • Design intervention
  • Evaluate

PIPE DREAM!

Iterative process: in particular, Ann Brown’s

“design experiment” style

Still, will address the steps in this order.

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slide56

Feedback on Student View

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

instructor view 2 3
Instructor View (2/3)

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

instructor view 3 3
Instructor View (3/3)

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

cfs evaluation

Final evaluation iteration

CFS Evaluation

Intro. programming course, summer 2002:

  • 150 students, 12 participants w/laptops
  • 9 week course, 3 weeks with CFS

Data: observations, surveys, focus groups, interview w/instructor, logs

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

cfs increased interaction
CFS increased interaction

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slide61

SIP

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slide62

REMIND: exercises from experimentalclass; REAL DATA

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slide63
Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction
slide64

TRANS: DESIGN

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slide65
Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction
slide66
Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction
slide67
Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction
experimental sip class
Topic: Risk Assessment

Duration: 50 minutes

Students: 24, CS stud-ents, faculty, staff, each w/a Tablet PC

Presentation included six SIP exercises.

Results:

System successful

98% participation in SIP exercises

4-7 interactions per student (median)

62% “teacher-talk”

Experimental SIP Class

Took ~1 hour to convert static => interactive

Designed INSIDE PPT USING SIP, etc.

62% T-T (compare to 68% K-12norm)

Median of 3-5 interactions through SIP

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

design lessons
Design Lessons
  • SIP’s integrated exercises create “participatory feel”
  • Students’ social expectations support participation
  • SIP anonymity policies should be easy to specify and understand
  • Student interface should present few distractions
  • Student interface should provide clear value (independent navigation and notetaking)
  • Instructors must still motivate interactive pedagogy

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

slide70
Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction