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Sociology 134 The Peopling of America Story: Ali and Samra Sabir; a young couple from Pakistan Won a special lottery for a work visa Residing in New York City; celebrated their first fourth of July in 1999. Picnic: chicken and rice dish; potato chips; cricket (passed on lasagna)

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sociology 134

Sociology 134

The Peopling of America

story ali and samra sabir a young couple from pakistan
Story: Ali and Samra Sabir; a young couple from Pakistan
  • Won a special lottery for a work visa
  • Residing in New York City; celebrated their first fourth of July in 1999.
  • Picnic: chicken and rice dish; potato chips; cricket (passed on lasagna)
  • Clash between strict Muslim beliefs and American life styles
  • Ali wants his family to remain in America, become citizens, but not become Americans
  • Question: Is this possible?
overview of peopling of america
Overview of Peopling of America
  • Involuntary participants
    • American Indians
    • Africans
    • Mexicans in Southwest
  • Immigration: Concepts and History
    • Terminology
    • Tensions over immigration
    • Immigration Policy
overview continued
Overview, continued
  • Current Immigration Policy and Numbers
  • Current Immigration Controversies
involuntary participants
Involuntary Participants
  • “The Indian Problem”
    • Removal
    • Reservations
    • Urbanization (1/4 on or near reservations)
  • Slavery and Its Aftermath
    • Concentration in South; Great Migration;Return Migration
    • Why did the net migration flow switch directions?
  • The Original Mexican Americans
    • Citizenship, but discrimination and prejudice
concepts
Concepts
  • Over 70,000 foreigners arrive in the U.S. each day
    • Immigrants (2,200)
    • Over 60,000 are tourists, students, and workers on temporary visas
    • Approximately 5,000 are illegal immigrants, but about 4,000 of these are apprehended quickly; around 1,000 or so remain for some time
concepts continued
Concepts, continued
  • Generations: 1st, 2nd, 3rd
  • Refugee (outside the U.S.)
  • Asylee (inside the U.S.)
  • We are the leading receiver of immigrants in most years; 2000: 10% of the U.S. population was foreign born
tensions over immigration
Tensions Over Immigration
  • Mexico (2nd leading country of origin of immigrants in our history)
  • Who is first?
  • Tensions over origins (Germans, Irish, Italians, Asians, Mexicans)
  • Tensions over numbers (why are numbers important?)
  • Costs and benefits
  • Effects on countries of origin?
immigration and immigration policy open borders 1780 1875
Immigration and Immigration Policy: Open Borders, 1780-1875
  • 1790: individuals who were “free” and “white” could become naturalized citizens; it was 1952 before Asians could become naturalized citizens
  • 1870: extended to aliens of African nativity and individuals of African descent; anyone born in U.S. is automatically a citizen (14th Amendment)
restrictive policies 1875 1965
Restrictive Policies, 1875-1965
  • 1875: prohibitions on entry of convicted criminals and prostitutes
  • 1882: prohibitions on entry of those likely to become a public charge
  • 1882: Chinese Exclusion Act
  • 1903: excluded anarchists and revolutionaries
  • Early 1900s: Gentlemen’s Agreement with Japan
nativism and policies
Nativism and Policies
  • Nativism: immigration is dangerous for our society—especially from certain countries
  • 1924: Quota system favoring Northern and Western European countries
  • 1952: all aliens became eligible for naturalization
purposeful immigration policies 1965 present
Purposeful Immigration Policies, 1965-Present
  • Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965:
    • Abolished national origins quota system
    • Established preferences based on relationship to U.S. citizens and permanent residents and labor needs
  • Refugee Act of 1980
  • IRCA of 1986
  • 1996: additional funds for Border Patrol; restrict benefits available to immigrants
changes in numbers
Changes in Numbers
  • 1881-1890: 4.7M from Europe; .06M from Asia, .4M from America
  • 1981-1990: .8M from Europe; 2.7M from Asia, 3.6M from America
  • 1991-1995: .8M from Europe, 1.6M from Asia, 2.7M from America
current immigration policy
Current Immigration Policy
  • Legal Immigration: flexible cap of 421,000 to 675,000 (too much or too little?)
  • Refugee/Asylee
  • Illegal Immigration (5M in 1996, increasing by 275T each year; probably 6.5M in 2002; 2% of U.S. population)
  • Naturalization 1999: 840,000
  • Rights of Immigrants
current immigration controversies
Current Immigration Controversies
  • Costs and Benefits of Immigration
  • Illegal Immigration
  • Refugees
  • Citizenship and Naturalization
  • Culture and Identity