The Texas Family Literacy Resource Center presents… The PALS PRE-K ASSESSMENT: Make it work harder for you
Objectives • Understand why to assess at the early preschool level • Identify and understand the benefits of implementing the entire assessment • Review the procedures for administering the assessment • Understand how to administer each part of the assessment • Discuss and identify supporting activities
Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening • A tool that measures young children’s understanding of emergent literacy fundamentals • A direct method of matching early literacy instruction to specific literacy needs • A way to recognize those children who are relatively behind in their emergent literacy development
CURRENTLY… • …Even Start programs are only required to administer the Section II, Alphabet Knowledge Section of PALS PreK.
As stated by Beth Thompson… “Now that you are familiar with the instrument, you may be ready to have it work harder for you. It can be difficult to obtain specific information to help your teachers form instruction that meets the specific needs of each child. PALS Pre-K is a tool that can provide your EC teachers with information they can use as a basis for instruction. Such information can also be incorporated into parenting education and ILA.”
So why administer the whole assessment? • To identify general degree of literacy development for the children in your class • Guide classroom instruction • identify specific areas that may need increased attention • For the class • For individual students • Identify children at risk for future reading difficulties • Integrate info. obtained into parenting ed and ILA
Parts of Assessment • Section I: Name Writing • Section II: Alphabet Knowledge • Part A: Upper-Case Alphabet Recognition • Part B: Lower-Case Alphabet Recognition • Part C: Letter Sounds • Section III: Beginning Sound Awareness • Section IV: Print and Word Awareness • Section V: Rhyme Awareness • Section VI: Nursery Rhyme Awareness
Name Writing – why is it important? • Highly correlated with letter recognition, print knowledge, and concept of word • Practice with name writing allows child to see that a group of letters can refer to people and objects • Reading and writing are interrelated & develop concurrently
Why is alphabet recognition important? • Early literacy research suggests that accurate, rapid naming of the letters of the alphabet is the single best predictor of early reading achievement. • An essential tool in connecting print and speech • Alphabet knowledge is currently viewed as one of the most accurate identifiers of a young child’s later risk for reading difficulties
Elements of Phonological Awareness – why are they important? • These three areas of the PALS Pre-K are basic parts of phonological awareness: • Beginning Sound Awareness • Rhyme Awareness • Nursery Rhyme Awareness • Awareness of speech at the individual sound level is essential to learn sounds and match speech to print.
Print and Word Awareness – why is it important? • Familiarity with books is an important precursor to learning to read • Children need to know that: • stories and other texts are written left to right • spaces between words matter • and there is a one-to-one correspondence between the words on a page and the words the reader says
The Building Blocks of Literacy Concepts Of Print How to “use books & print Alphabet Knowledge The shapes & sounds of letters Phonological Awareness The sounds of spoken language Oral Language Talking & listening
Sequence of PALS Pre-K Tasks • Can be administered in suggested order or in order most convenient for teacher • Suggested order for entire assessment: • I. Name Writing • II. Alphabet Knowledge • III. Beginning Sound Awareness * • IV. Print and Word Awareness • V. Rhyme Awareness * • VI. Nursery Rhyme Awareness * Do not administer III. And V. consecutively (in order to avoid confusion)
Administration & Scoring • Time Required • No time limit • Usually 20-25 minutes • Administration Management • Recommend administered by classroom teacher • If each section done separately, entire assessment should be completed in two weeks
MODIFICATIONS • PreK Bilingual Program – be aware if child is in PreK Bilingual • Assessment administered in English • Response in English expected – if child responds in another language they are still displaying letter recognition • Differentiate correct responses in English and those in another language on Summary Sheet for scoring later
WHO GETS TESTED? • Programs complete assessment of all Even Start children who were four by September 1st, regardless of which partner provides direct early childhood instruction. • http://www.curriculumassociates.com/brigance/Age_Calc/BRIGANCE_Age_Calculator.htm - Use Sept. 1st as testing date • Assess every four-year old in your Even Start families, even if they are receiving early childhood education in district PreK, Head Start or from some other Even Start collaborator.
Important Dates to watch for… • Pre-test by Sept. 14 • Post-test on May 1-16 • In order to have the full impact of EC facilitate the post-test score – • Pre-test as early as you can and Post-test as late as you can
Assessment Procedures Before the Assessment • Familiarize yourself with contents of the instrument and manual & watch the video • Complete name/date on form • Set up the testing area • Quiet location • All materials needed are available and ready to use • Minimize interruptions
Assessment Procedures During the Assessment • Introduce the task right before you ask the child to complete it • Administer practice items (more than once if needed) • Monitor child carefully – offer encouragement • If task too difficult and child frustrated – stop administration & indicate “task discontinued” on form • Score each item – See next slide!
Assessment Procedures DURING Assessment contd. • IMPORTANT!! • Score each item -- • indicatewhetherresponseswereinEnglish, Spanish, anotherlanguage, orcomboonChildSummarySheet • Will need that info. for data reporting purposes!!
Section I: Name Writing • Administration notes • Ask child to write their name • Ask child to draw a picture of themselves • Instructions • What to say • Where - Child Summary Sheet (back page) • Scoring • Minimum score: 0, Maximum Score 7 • Don’t score the drawing • Name writing video clip
Section II: Alphabet Knowledge • Part A: Upper-Case Alphabet Recognition • Administration Notes • Show one row or one letter at a time • Ask child to touch the letters or you can point to letters • Instructions • Tell child to put his/her finger on the first letter at the top of the page • Say…(see script in teacher’s manual – pg. 15) • Scoring • Score responses on Child Summary Sheet & enter total number of correct responses in score box. • Self-corrections are counted as correct answers. • Must score 16 or more to continue to Part B. • Alphabet Recognition video clip
Part B: Lower-Case Alphabet Recognition • Administered only if scored 16 or more in upper-case • Instructions • Tell child to put his/her finger on the first letter at the top of the page • Say…(see script – pg. 16) • Scoring • Score responses on Child Summary Sheet & enter total number of correct responses in score box. • Self-corrections are counted as correct answers.
Part C: Letter Sounds Administered only if scored 9 or more in lower-case letters • Instructions • Say…(see script on pg. 17) • Note: Pronunciation Guide (not looking for long vowel sound) • Scoring • Mark slash through incorrect answers • Count correct answers • Enter score in score box • Letter Sounds video
Section III: Beginning Sound Awareness • Administration Notes • Goal: for child to produce a beginning sound • Task can be used as a teaching exercise – whether responds correctly or not – tell child what correct answer was as you sort the picture cards • Instructions • Show picture of target word child repeats word ask child to produce first sound (teacher sorts cards) • Practice items can be repeated • Administer assessment – script (pg. 19) • If letter given – refocus to sound
Beginning Sound Awareness, contd. • Scoring • Score first oral response – correct response can either be letter sound or the letter name (sound preferred) • Count + or – and enter number of correct responses in score box • Beginning Sound Awareness video clip
Section IV: Print and Word Awareness • Administration Notes • While reading book – ask questions in script • Familiarize yourself with the ten items in the task • Script – pg. 24 • Scoring • Enter + or – on scoring sheet • Enter number of correct answers in score box • Video clip
Section V: Rhyme Awareness • Administration Notes • Do practice items – use as teaching exercise (give correct answer only here) • Child can say the word or point to picture • If child says another word that rhymes – redirect to choose from pictures on page • Instructions • Guide through practice items • Administer test (repeat directions at any time)
Rhyme Awareness, contd. • Scoring • Enter + or – on scoring sheet • Enter number of correct answers in score box • Video clip
Section VI: Nursery Rhyme Awareness • Administration Notes • Nursery rhymes read aloud and child gives missing word • Practice items only time practice together • Instructions • Do practice items • Administer assessment • If child doesn’t say missing word after 5 seconds – provide the correct word and go to the next item.
Nursery Rhyme Awareness, contd. • Scoring • Use + or – to score answers • Count correct answers and record in score box • Video clip
FAQ’S • Can I administer the assessment or instructions in Spanish? • No, the test is to be administered in English. • What if the child responds to letter names with letter sounds? Is it correct? • No, if the child gives the sound only, redirect them to provide the letter NAME. If they give both the sound and the correct letter name – it is correct.
FAQs, cont. • What if the child responds to letter names and/or sounds in Spanish or other language? • Yes, if they respond correctly in Spanish or other language for letter name or sound – it is correct. It is still letter recognition. • If a child is frustrated by PALS, may I stop administration? • If a child is clearly frustrated by a task, you may open up the task. • For example, a child who struggles with alphabet recognition may be shown the entire alphabet recognition sheet and asked to identify any known letters.
Assessment Procedures After the Assessment • Enter data into TFLRC data collection spreadsheet • Refer to Chapter Three in Teacher’s Manual re: interpreting results • Browse PreK activities on PALS website and/or Chapter 4 of Teacher’s Manual for supporting activities • Look for supporting activities – TFLRC will be providing some in the future
Data Submission Procedures • Spreadsheets will be posted on TFLRC website • Data transferred from child summary sheets to spreadsheet • E-mail (preferred) or fax spreadsheets to TFLRC
Example of Report • Data Sheet Demo
Now… • Use the PALS Pre-K results and data to guide and plan your literacy curriculum!
Linking assessment with the curriculum • When developing a curriculum, it is important to identify the goals one has for children’s learning • Assessment information is a starting point for curriculum development • The use of assessments (especially ongoing) provides the tools to re-align the curriculum
ACTIVITY • Teacher Checklist of Literacy Practices • “This checklist presents different activities that help to foster literacy development in pre-school children.” • Use the checklist to evaluate your own literacy practices by checking what you already do. • List a couple of supporting activities you use in the classroom on the activity sheet. 2. Look at unchecked boxes for additional ideas. • List a couple of ideas for supporting activities you can use in the classroom on the activity sheet. • To look at checklist online: • http://pals.virginia.edu/PALS-Instruments/PreK_NYCU_CheckList.pdf
Supporting Activities • PALS PreK website • http://pals.virginia.edu/PALSInstruments/PALS-PreK.asp • Activities, lesson plans, parent’s corner • Colorín Coloradό • http://www.colorincolorado.org/educators/questions/earlylit • A bilingual site for families and educators of English Language Learners • Get Ready to Read! • http://www.getreadytoread.org/content/view/69/321/ • Free, downloadable resources for the Get Ready to Read! Skill-building activity cards (English/Spanish) • TFLRC website • Coming…follow up information on supporting activities
Spring, 2008 TFLRC will present a Parenting Education Initiative in Feb.– May at 4 locations. Home Visiting Initiative Spring ‘07
What’s it all about? • We’ll tie PALS PreK, Home Inventory and Parent Ed together with lots of great resources and strategies. • Be sure to budget for and make plans to attend this initiative. • We’ll get back to you with more details – so be on the lookout!
Evaluation • Complete your evaluation sheet and: • Fax to Gloria Rodriguez at (512) 245-8151
Thanks for… • Attending the first TFLRC professional development web conference!!!
References & Resources • http://pals.virginia.edu/PALSInstruments/PALS-PreK.asp • http://reading.org/downloads/52nd_conv_handouts/m_invernizzi.doc • Ivernizzi, M. Using PALS Data to Plan Multi-tiered Intervention in Virginia. Retrieved July 10, 2007 from http://pals.virginia.edu. • Justice, L.M., Pence, K., Bowles, R., & Wiggins, A. (2006). An investigation of four hypotheses concerning the order by which 4-year-old children learn the alphabet letters. Retrieved July 6, 2007 from http:www.sciencedirect.com. • PALS and Reading First. Retrieved July 10, 2007 from http://pals.virginia.edu/Reading-First/PALS_ and_Reading_First.pdf .