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Telescopes. Introduction. A telescope is designed to form on the retina of the eye a larger image of an object than would be created if the object were viewed with the naked eye. In this experiment three different types of telescopes will be constructed. . The three telescopes are:.

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introduction
Introduction
  • A telescope is designed to form on the retina of the eye a larger image of an object than would be created if the object were viewed with the naked eye.
  • In this experiment three different types of telescopes will be constructed.
the three telescopes are
The three telescopes are:
  • Astronomical
  • Terrestrial
  • Galilean (opera glass)
  • To understand how they operate one should first see how an image is created by a single lens.
types of lenses
Types of Lenses

Plano

Convex

Plano

Concave

Double

Convex

Double

Concave

Convex Meniscus

Concave Meniscus

Nearsighted people use lenses similar to these.

Farsighted people use lenses similar to these.

imaging with a convex lens

f

Principal Axis

An eye placed here

Imaging with a Convex Lens

and passes through a point

called the focal point.

is bent upon entering the lens.

Arrow as

Object

Upon exiting the lens it is bent again

sees an

image here.

A ray parallel to the principal axis

Convex Lens

A ray passing through the center of the lens is basically undeflected.

This arrangement produces an inverted, real, diminished image. Image descriptions follow.

image descriptions
Image Descriptions
  • Inverted image means that the image is up-side-down compared to the object.
  • Real image means that the image can be viewed by the reflection from a screen placed at the image’s location. The light rays forming the image actually pass through the physical location of the image.
  • Diminished image means that it is reduced in size compared to the size of the object.
more imaging with a convex lens

f

An eye placed here

More Imaging With a Convex Lens

is bent upon entering the lens.

Upon exiting the lens it is bent again

Arrow as

Object

and passes through a point

called the focal point.

A ray parallel to the principal axis

sees an

image here.

Convex Lens

A ray passing through the center of the lens is basically undeflected.

This arrangement produces an upright, virtual, magnified image. It is a simple magnifying glass.

image descriptions10
Image Descriptions
  • Upright image means that the image is in the same up or down orientation as the object.
  • Virtual image means that the image cannot be formed on a screen. The light rays forming the image only appear to pass through the physical location of the image.
  • Magnified or enlarged image means that it is larger in size compared to the size of the object.
imaging with a concave lens

f

An eye placed here

Imaging with a Concave Lens

is bent upon entering the lens.

Arrow as

Object

Upon exiting the lens it is bent again

A ray parallel to the principal axis

such that is appears to have come

from a point called the focal point.

sees an

image here.

Concave Lens

A ray passing through the center of the lens is basically undeflected.

This arrangement produces an upright, virtual, diminished image.

astronomical telescope
Astronomical Telescope
  • The astronomical telescope is composed of an objective lens and an eyepiece lens.
  • The objective lens produces a diminished, realinverted image of an object being viewed.
  • For distant objects this image is just outside the focal point of the objective lens.
the objective lens of an astronomical telescope

form this image.

The Objective Lens of an Astronomical Telescope

The rays from a distant object (arrow)

This real image becomes the

object for the eyepiece.

Objective (Convex Lens)

eyepiece of an astronomical telescope
Eyepiece of anAstronomical Telescope
  • The eyepiece lens is used as a simple magnifying glass to observe the image formed by the objective lens.
  • This image formed by the eyepiece is a virtual image of the real image produced by the objective.
  • The observer will see an inverted image with this type of telescope.
the eyepiece lens of an astronomical telescope

f

The Eyepiece Lens of an Astronomical Telescope

The image formed by the objective

becomes the object for the eyepiece.

Eyepiece

(Convex Lens)

inverter lens for a terrestrial telescope
Inverter Lens for aTerrestrial Telescope
  • A third lens can be introduced between the objective lens and the eyepiece lens of an astronomical telescope in such a way as to produce an upright image for the observer.
  • This lens effectively transforms the astronomical telescope into a terrestrial telescope.
the inverter lens of a terrestrial telescope

f

The Inverter Lens of aTerrestrial Telescope

The image formed by the objective

becomes the object for the inverter.

The inverter simply inverts the image.

Inverter

(Convex Lens)

galilean telescope or opera glass
Galilean Telescopeor Opera Glass
  • The objective lens is convex and the eyepiece lens is concave.
  • The resultant image is upright, magnified, and virtual.
  • The field of view is quite limited, which is okay for operas but is not very useful for watching football games for example.
the eyepiece lens of a galilean telescope opera glass

would form an image here

if the eyepiece were not present.

f

An eye placed here

The parallel ray actually bends like this.

The Eyepiece lens of a Galilean Telescope (Opera Glass)

would see an image here.

Light from the objective

Eyepiece

(Concave Lens)

the astronomical telescope
The Astronomical Telescope

Objective

(Convex Lens)

(Longer focal length)

Eyepiece

(Convex Lens)

(Shorter focal length)

the terrestrial telescope
The Terrestrial Telescope

Inverter

(Convex Lens)

(Shorter focal length)

Objective

(Convex Lens)

(Longer focal length)

Eyepiece

(Convex Lens)

(Shorter focal length)

the galilean telescope opera glass
The Galilean Telescope(Opera Glass)

Objective

(Convex Lens)

(Longer focal length)

Eyepiece

(Concave Lens)

(Shorter focal length)