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Sports Nutrition: Jim White ADA Spokesman, RD, ACSM HFS Opening “Our food should be our medicine and our medicine our food” Hippocrates Food is can heal Food can kill THE POWER OF THE DIETITIAN Sports Nutrition: study and practice of nutrition and diet related to performance Outline

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  • “Our food should be our medicine and our medicine our food” Hippocrates
  • Food is can heal
  • Food can kill
  • Sports Nutrition: study and practice of nutrition and diet related to performance
  • Macronutrients: carbs, protein, fat, water, vitamins, minerals
  • Pre-workout and post-workout fuel
  • Eating for your sport
  • Supplements, engineered sports foods
  • Eating disorders
  • Assessing your body
  • Careers in Sports Nutrition
  • Sources: Fruits, veggies, whole grains
  • Benefits: Energy, Fiber, vit, min, increases glycogen
  • Bad rap-low carb
  • Low carb decreases energy
  • Cost converting carbs to fat 23%; fat to fat 3%
  • Simple vs complex:
  • Quick and slow-(Glycemic index)
  • Too many factors influence food glycemic index (banana)
  • Glycemic Load
  • Sports research fails to clearly show performance benefits from single use carbs
  • High glycemic—muscles replete faster
  • Low glycemic—better performance second day
  • Insulin double edge- increase appetite and fat deposit
  • Some studies show low GI foods increase wt loss more than higher carb diet---but others showed the opposite, so stay tuned
  • White vs wheat—greater than 50% grains from whole grains
  • Sugar highs and lows- athletes sugar sensitive
  • (Spike and Crash)—combine protein and fat
  • 200g yogurt (low)---200g jelly beans (high)
  • Honor personal response experiment
  • Carbs and glycogen—Average 150lb male has

1800cals stored in body (60,000-100,000 stored fat)

1400 muscle (used during exercise)

320 liver (used to keep blood glucose under control)

80g blood glucose

Study exercise (Low carb—55min)

(Carbed—twice as much)

  • Well-trained muscles store more (20-50% more glycogen)
  • Carb recommendations: 6-10g/kg body wt (150lb = 400-600g or 55-65% carbs)1-1.5g
  • Carb loading: a)carb load daily; b)taper training 7-10 days by 30%; c)keep consistent carb load
  • Successful load: properly gain 2-4lbs water; 1oz stored glycogen – 3oz water
  • Rebuilds and repairs muscles
  • Grows hair and fingernails
  • Produces hormones
  • Boosts immune system
  • Replaces RBCs
  • Is more better?—body building world 2x per lb
  • High protein downfalls: dehydration, increased fat, increased urinary loss Ca+, kidney stress, fat, expensive
  • Extra Extra-
  • Dieters consuming too few cals
  • Endurance athletes/intense exercisers (5% of energy)
  • Growing teenage athletes
  • Untrained people
  • Requirements
  • Recreational exerciser: 0.5 -0.7 g/lb
  • Endurance : 0.6 -0.7 g/lb
  • Adult building muscle mass: 0.7 -0.8 g/lb
  • Complete-Chicken, eggs, fish, beef
  • Incomplete: wheat bread and peanut butter, beans and rice, cereal and milk
  • Vegetarians: soy, beans, nuts
  • Supplements: unknown if bioactive compounds that might influence muscle growth
  • Whey better? Casein? Soy?
  • Supplement for: medically malnourished patients, underweight teens, anorexia, AIDS
  • Don’t replace real food..just doesn’t have all live nutrients
  • Source of energy, fat soluble vitamins
  • Fat recommendations: 20-35% (less than 20% does not benefit performance
  • Trans fat, omega 3, omega 6, omega 9, sat fat
  • Replaces sweat losses
  • Transports glucose, O2, fats to working muscles Eliminates wastes
  • Absorbs heat from muscles
  • Lubricates joints
  • Regulates body temp (body generates 20 degree increase in temp)
  • 1% body loss fluid = 1.5lbs
  • 2% loss is dehydration
  • 3% loss can impair aerobic performance
water recommendations
Water recommendations
  • Fluid requirements: person to person based on sport, body size, intensity of exercise, weather
  • Dehydration Symptoms: Tired, bloated, nausea, headache---too low=>seizures, coma, death
  • Before: 16oz 1hr prior
  • During: 8oz every 15min
  • After: 16oz per 1lb sweat loss
  • 64 oz daily plus 16 oz per lb lossed
  • Hyponatremia and sodium loss: blood sodium levels become abnormally low
  • Hyper hydrate- dilutes body fluids and creates sodium imbalance
  • Happens : less 4hr events (over hydration)

: more 4hr events (sweat loss)

  • Who? --slow marathoners, triathletes, ultra runners, unfit weekend warriors
  • Recommendation: 250-500mg Na per hr (20-40oz Gatorade)
  • Endurance sports drink with higher amounts Na for exercise more than 4hrs,
  • Eat sodium foods 90min before exercise (retains water)
  • The more you train in heat the less Na you lose because your body conserves Na and electrolytes
fluid choices
Fluid Choices
  • OJ okay, orange preferred
  • Colas: phosphoric acid harmful to health
  • Vitamin water- expensive- too few vitamins
  • Energy drinks- Red Bull 80mg caffeine– quick energy fix will not replace suboptimal sports drink
  • Alcohol
eating for exercise success
Eating for exercise success
  • Pre-workout: prevents hypoglycemia, helps settle stomach, absorb gastric juices, wards off hunger, fuels muscles, piece of mind knowing that body is fueled
  • Go by your gut—can cause distress—learn what works for you (varies person to person and sport to sport)
eating for exercise success22
Eating for exercise success
  • Preworkout and GI distress
  • Gi problems
  • Type of sport: cyclists and swimmers less GI
  • Training status: untrained people report more than trained
  • Age: younger more than veterans—less experience
  • Gender: women reported more (particularly time of menstruation)
eating for exercise success23
Eating for exercise success
  • Emotional and mental stress
  • High fiber
  • Caffeine
  • Gels: concentrated sugars can cause gastric distress
eating for exercise success24
Eating for exercise success
  • Preworkout
  • Recommendations: 0.5g carbs per lb 1 hr before moderate exercise
  • 2g carbs per lb 4hrs before
  • Eat and dash—wake up 2hrs early to eat
  • Morning liver glycogen is low—studies show performance is better with food
eating for exercise success25
Eating for exercise success

Pre-exercise fueling guidelines:

  • Eat high carb meals on a daily basis
  • 1hr before exercise (fruit, yogurt, crackers)
  • Greater than 60min exercise: Little protein and fat (bagel with peanut butter or oats with low fat milk)
  • New Study: 20g pro and 20g carbs increases muscle glycogen and muscle synthesis
eating for exercise success26
Eating for exercise success
  • During Workout:
  • To maintain blood glucose level consume 100-250 cals (25-60g) carbs per 1hr after 1st hour
  • Gels, beans, sports drinks, banana, energy bar plus water
eating for exercise success27
Eating for exercise success
  • Post-workout:
  • 30min-1hr window ideal
  • 0.5g carbs per kg per hr
  • Carbs and protein combo
  • BENEFITS: Increases muscle synthesis and glycogen storage, decreases cortisol (hormone that breaks down muscle), decreases muscle soreness
  • Examples (yogurt and granola cereal and milk, pasta and meat sauce)
vitamins and minerals team players
Vitamins and Minerals (Team Players)
  • Stick to RDA Requirements; deficiency can hinder performance, excess no benefit
  • Multivitamin-”Health Insurance”
  • Calcium maintains ridged structure of bones-deficiency; increased risk of bone loss
  • ZINC essential for protein synthesis
  • IRON transports o2 to muscles
  • B VITAMINS-releases energy from foods
  • VIT D controls way you body uses calcium
  • SODIUM helps control water balance
  • POTASSIUM-assists muscle contraction; converts glucose to glycogen; no more than 3500mg supp k+
eating disorders
Eating Disorders
  • Highest prevalence: Gymnastics, figure skating, wrestling, body building
  • Anorexia: 90% female, 10% males
  • Female athlete Triad: Loss of menstrual cycle, osteoporosis, disordered eating
  • Dysmorphia
  • Orthoexia
assessing the body
Assessing the body
  • Body weight
  • Measurements
  • Body fat testing
  • Vo2
  • BMI
  • IBW
careers in sports nutrition
Careers in sports nutrition
  • Fitness Certification is recommended
  • Areas of work (private practice, highschool, college, professional sports, wellness centers, media, military bases, research
  • Society of sports nutrition; national association of sports nutrition, ACSM, ADA-Certified Specialist in Sports Nutrition
  • Communication and motivational skills
  • Learn their sport
  • 29k-60k income