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TIMELINE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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TIMELINE Copy by hand the key events on the timeline and add at least 2 illustrations . You can create a mind map or an illustrated timeline. Your timeline should be thoughtful, neat, and well-created. Timelines will be turned in by tomorrow at the beginning of the class period.

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Copy by hand the key events on the timeline and add at least 2 illustrations. You can create a mind map or an illustrated timeline. Your timeline should be thoughtful, neat, and well-created. Timelines will be turned in by tomorrow at the beginning of the class period.

Your timeline will span the years 1939-1945, and maybe a little before and after those dates if you wish.

Write down the 8-10 events that you think are interesting/important. Everyone’s timeline will look a little different.





By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY

Additional material by Molly Lynde


The Road





The Ineffectiveness of the League of Nations

  • No control of major conflicts.
  • No progress in disarmament.
  • No effective military force.

The “Stab-In-The-Back” Theory

German soldiers are dissatisfied.


International Agreements

  • Locarno Pact – 1925
    • France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy
      • Guarantee existing frontiers
      • Establish DMZ 30 miles deep on East bank of Rhine River
      • Refrain from aggression against each other
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact – 1928
    • Makes war illegal as a tool of diplomacy
      • No enforcement provisions
important dates
Important Dates

1931- Japan invades Manchuria

1935- Italy invades Ethopia

1936- Rome- Berlin Pact

1936-1939 Spanish Civil War

1936/37- Japan takes Nanjing China

1936- Hitler takes Rhineland

1938- Hitler takes Austria

1938- Hitler takes Sudetenland

1938- Munich Agreement/ Appeasement

1939- Hitler takes Czhechoslovakia

czechoslavakia crisis
Czechoslavakia Crisis
  • Created after WWI, millions of ethnic Germans live there, it’s called Sudetenland
  • Land rich in minerals
  • 1938, Hitler demanded return of the Sudetenland to the Reich, or German gov’t
  • Czechoslavakia turns to ally France for help and France seeks guidance from Brit.
  • Brit. and France say they’ll support “self-determination” (right to choose gov’t)
  • Hitler frustrated, Sept. 22 he demanded complete annexation and occupation
how would your country respond
How Would Your Country Respond?
  • Unconditional support German demands
  • Neutral (not supporting either side)
  • Negotiated w/ Hitler. He can take Sudetenland if he promises to make no more demands on Czech.
  • Oppose Germany but no threat to declare war on Germany if it attacks Sudetenland
  • Threaten to declare war on Germany if it tries to take Sudentenland
  • You try to talk to Germany – Munich Conference Sept. 28, 1938
  • Appeasement (making compromises to an aggressor to keep peace) by letting Germany occupy Sudetenland
  • Agreement between Germany and Britain, France, Italy (called the Munich Pact) said Germany could occupy Sudetenland if it was their last territorial demand in Europe
  • (C)
  • Claimed it would defend Czech. if it was attacked by Germany, but in reality, French president doesn’t want fighting
  • France attends Munich conference too and signed Munich Pact
  • (C)
soviet union
Soviet Union
  • Strictly opposed to extension of German territory, so they didn’t attend Munich Conference
  • Stalin supported Czech. against German aggression, but didn’t think his army was ready to fight Germany in 1938
  • Reluctantly, he decided to not become involved in solving the crisis
  • (D)
united states
United States
  • Isolationist foreign policy after WWI
  • Maintained neutrality toward European problems
  • (B)
  • Supported Germany b/c it wanted the rich, coal-producing region in northern Czech.
  • For its support, Poland was awarded this northern region by Germany in Sept. 1938
  • (A)
  • Remained neutral
  • But b/c it was close to both Czech. and Germany, it accelerated its preparedness for war
  • (B)
violation of munich
Violation of Munich
  • Munich Conference – Britain, France, Germany, Italy
  • Britain and France want to strike a deal – appeasement
  • Germany occupied Sudetenland in Oct., but soon Germany begins to pressure Czech leaders and wants new Czech gov’t that’s sympathetic to Germany
  • Threatens war
  • Occupy Czech. and annexes it next day
how do you respond
How do you respond?
  • Supported Germany’s annexation of Czech.
  • Declared war on Germany for breaking Munich Pact
  • Continued appeasement, hoping Germany would finish its territorial aggression
  • Tried to negotiate with Germany to pull out of Czech.
  • Neutral
  • Neutral, but prepared for defensive war in case of invasion
  • Didn’t respond, just stood by
  • (C)
  • Followed Britain’s lead, appeasing Hitler in hopes that Czech. Crisis wouldn’t cause international war
  • (C)
soviet union1
Soviet Union
  • Adopted a more friendly stance towards Germany b/c Stalin thought Western countries could do nothing to stop the rise of Nazi Germany
  • Hoped that good relationship w/ Germany would keep Russia out of European war
  • (A)
united states1
United States
  • Maintained neutrality
  • Staying out of conflicts in Europe
  • (E)
  • Too small to stand up to Germany
  • Forced to accept appeasement policy adopted by allies, Britain and France
  • (C)
  • Maintained neutrality
  • But intensifies defensive measures because of threat of invasion
  • (F)
invasion of poland
Invasion of Poland
  • After occupation of Czech, Hitler looks towards Polish Corridor, strip of German land given to Poland in 1919
  • This strip split Germany into two parts
  • 1939, Hitler makes demands for territory to be returned to Germany
  • Fearing aggression, Poland reinforced defense agreements w/France, Brit., USSR
  • But, Hitler and Stalin shocked the world by signing the Nonaggression Pact (pledging to not attack one another in case of war
invasion of poland1
Invasion of Poland
  • Defense agreement between Poland and USSR useless now
  • Neville Chamberlain, Brit. Prime Minister, formally gives Brit. support to Poland
  • France promises to attack Germany if they start war in Poland
  • Sept. 1, 1939, Germany invades Poland
how do you respond1
How do you respond?
  • Neutral
  • Neutral, but prepared for defensive war in case of invasion
  • Gave financial aid (money) to Allies (all countries fighting against Germany)
    • Germany and its allies called Axis Powers

D. Joined Germany in its invasion of Poland

E. Declared war on Germany and hoped they would retreat from Poland, but did not actually fight

F. Declared war on Germany and sent troops to fight the Germans

  • Could not help defend Poland militarily
  • Declares war on Germany, but does not start any fighting w/Germans
  • (E)
  • Declares war on Germany
  • Some minor attacks on the French-German border, but for the most part, France does not aid the Poles despite their defense agreement
  • France begins long process to defend its border w/ Germany
  • (E)
soviet union2
Soviet Union
  • Supported German invasion of Poland
  • Stalin realizes war in Europe inevitable so he signs secret agreements w/ Germany that would divide up Eastern Europe between the two countries
  • Soviet Union invades Poland in alliance w/ Germany
  • (D)
united states2
United States
  • With the invasion of Poland, the official beginning of the war, the U.S. announces its neutrality
  • Pres. Roosevelt says he’ll take all necessary measures except for war to help the Allies
  • (A)
  • Fought for over 3 weeks before surrendering to Germany and Soviet Union
  • A Polish “gov’t in exile” established in London
  • (F)
  • Stays neutral
  • But it does mobilize 430,000 troops in case it was invaded by Germany
  • (B)
invasion of france
Invasion of France
  • After fall of Poland, Germany and Allies didn’t fight for 8 months – the “phony war”
  • Then, Germany invades Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Belgium in May 1940 (they all surrender)
  • Germany had already invaded France, but w/ Belgium conquered, its able to have full attention on capturing Paris (if Paris falls, France falls)
  • French move their gov’t south to prepare
response to fall of paris
Response to fall of Paris?
  • Surrender unconditionally to Germany
  • Surrender on condition that your gov’t retained limited independence and control of some of your territory
  • Proclaim neutrality
  • Neutral, but prepare defenses in case war spreads
  • Fought Germany wherever possible
  • Supported Germany’s invasion of France
great britain
Great Britain
  • Britain had already evacuated its troops from France b/c of German pressure, so British couldn’t help defend Paris
  • But Brit. continues to fight Germans elsewhere
  • Britain left alone after Paris fell, last Allied country not occupied/annexed by Germany
soviet union3
Soviet Union
  • Supported the invasion but doesn’t participate in it
  • (F)
united states3
United States
  • Maintained neutrality, but alarmed by success of Germany
  • When Italy declares war on France and Britain, Pres. Roosevelt announces that the United States would “extend to the opponents of force (the Allies) the material resources of this nation”
  • (C)
  • Had been partitioned by Germany and USSR, but the troops who had been able to escape the country continued to fight Germany elsewhere
  • (E)
  • Maintains neutrality, but w/ the fall of France, it was completely surrounded by Axis countries or Axis-occupied lands
  • Swiss plan to defend only the heartland of their country
  • (D)
  • Surrendered and signed armistice (cease-fire) w/ Germany on June 22, 1940
  • w/ the armistice, Germany had direct control over northern and western 60% of France
  • French gov’t would keep control of the rest of France, but it was set up as a puppet gov’t collaborating w/ Germans (Vichy Gov’t)
  • Charles de Gaulle (a French general refuses the Vichy Gov’t and creates Free French Gov’t
    • He wants to continue fight against Germany
  • Both (B) and (E) are right b/cVichy and the Free French Gov’t had individual responses to events
  • So now France is divided into two gov’ts
battle of britain
Battle of Britain
  • When France surrenders in 1940 to Germany, Hitler in control of all W. European countries except Great Britain
  • Hitler hopes that new PM (Winston Churchill) would surrender, but he doesn’t
  • Operation Sea Lion, invasion of Britain
  • Battle of Britain, Luftewaffe (German Air Force)
    • Has to be preceded by massive air assault to destroy Brit. air defenses (radar stations, air bases)
how do you respond2
How do you respond?
  • Surrender to Germany
  • Fought against Germany’s attack Brit.
  • Supported Germany’s attack on Brit.
  • Proclaimed neutrality
  • Neutral, but supported Brit. w/ military supplies and money
  • Proclaimed neutrality, but prepared defenses in case war spreads
  • Royal Air Force fights brilliantly
  • 40,000 Brit. causalities, 16,000 civilians dead
  • Germans lose almost 2,000 planes by Oct. 31
  • Brit. wins Battle of Britain and HUGE morale boost – its “finest hour”
  • (B)
  • Vichy supports the Nazis in Battle of Brit.
  • Free French in Britain contributed to defense of the country
  • Vichy (C)
  • Free France (B)
united states4
United States
  • Neutral but transferred 50 American destroyers to Brit. navy
  • U.S. loaned Brit. $ to pay for their defense
  • (E)
  • Had been partitioned by Nazis and Soviets in 1939
  • But four squadrons of Polish pilots fought successfully in Battle of Britain
  • (B)
  • Maintained neutrality
  • Continues plans for defense against possible German invasion
invasion of soviet union
Invasion of Soviet Union
  • After victories in W. and S. Europe, Hitler begins long-anticipated invasion of Soviet Union – “Operation Barbarossa”
  • Nonaggression Pact (1939) had been purely pragmatic (practical) attempt to stall inevitable battle
  • Nazis thought they could defeat Soviet Union in a few weeks
  • June 22, 1941 – Hitler unleashes massive invasion in USSR
  • Supported Germany’s invasion of Soviet Union
  • Fought against the German invasion of Soviet Union
  • Proclaimed neutrality
  • Supported the Soviets by sending military supplies and materials, but no troops
  • Surrendered to Germany
  • Opposed Germany’s invasion by fighting Germans elsewhere
  • GB and Soviet Union captured Iran in Aug. 1941
    • This allowed Brit. to send arms and materials through India to USSR during the war
  • (D)
  • Vichy France stays allied to Germany and sent some troops to aid in Operation Barbarossa
  • Free France fought in the war against Germany in N. Africa and still defended Brit.
  • But unable to aid in defense of USSR
  • Vichy (A)
  • Free France (F)
united states5
United States
  • Agreed to give support of Allies to Soviet Union (tanks, raw materials) through Iran
  • In Dec. 1941 (after Pearl Harbor), U.S. joins Allies and begins fighting Axis (Germany, Italy, and Japan)
  • (D)
  • Remained under German control during Barbarossa
  • Polish prisoners captured during Soviet invasion pf Poland formed into army in USSR that fought against Germans on Eastern Front
  • (B)
  • (C)
soviet union4
Soviet Union
  • Higher number of troops and severe winter save Soviet troops against Germany
  • Germans have to wait out harsh winter
  • Soviets use that time to reorganize and stockpile supplies
  • More attacks in the spring, but USSR defend valiantly
  • Feb. 1943, Germans forced to surrender at Stalingrad – tide turns
  • (B)
operation overlord
Operation Overlord
  • By 1944, Allies ready to launch Operation Overlord, invasion of Normandy coast of France
  • D-Day June 6, 1944
  • Germany now in control of all of France, ended Vichy Gov’t in 1942
  • Nazi generals had been expecting an invasion of France and had reinforced defenses on Normandy
  • Participated fully in invasion of Normandy coast
  • Supported Allies by sending some troops and supplies to Operation Overlord
  • Did not participate in Operation Overlord, but fought Germans elsewhere
  • Gave financial support to Allies
  • Neutral
  • Neutral but secretly helped Allies
great britain1
Great Britain
  • Organized and housed Allied army while it prepared for invasion of France
  • 83,000 Brit. and Canadian soldiers made up over half of landing forces
  • (A)
  • Vichy France had been overrun by Nazis b/c Vichy generals were cooperating w/Allies
  • All French forces came under control of Free France Gov’t
  • French soldiers participate in Operation Overlord, which drives Germans out of France
  • (A)
soviet union5
Soviet Union
  • Continued war against Germany in the East, but does not participate in Operation Overlord
  • By June 1944, Red Army had driven Germans off of almost all Soviet territory
  • (C)
united states6
United States
  • 73,000 U.S. troops in the invasion
  • American general Dwight D. Eisenhower commands Allied armies in Europe and accepts German surrender on May 8, 1945
  • (A)
  • Poland’s government-in-exile prepared for the liberation of Poland by the Soviets
  • Polish forces active in invasion of Italy, but not Operation Overlord
  • (C)
  • Remained neutral
  • However, its Air Force secretly aided the Allies in their bombing of Germany
  • Swiss gave Allies precision instruments used in making of planes, tanks, bombs, etc.
  • (F)

Italy Attacks Ethiopia, 1935

Emperor Haile Selassie


Rome-Berlin Axis, 1936

The “Pact of Steel”


The Spanish Civil War:1936 - 1939







  • Communists.
  • Republicans.
  • Socialists.
  • Carlists [ultra-Catholic monarchists].
  • Catholic Church.
  • Falange [fascist] Party.
  • Monarchists.

The Spanish Civil War: 1936 - 1939

The American “Lincoln Brigade”


Appeasement: The Munich Agreement, 1938

British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain

Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with.


The Nazi-SovietNon-Aggression Pact, 1939

Foreign Ministers von Ribbentrop & Molotov






Poland Attacked: Sept. 1, 1939

Blitzkrieg [“Lightening War”]


Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis, 1940

The Tripartite Pact


Hitler invaded Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.With everyone’s attention on Hitler’s sweep of these nations he sent an even larger force into France through the Ardrennes Forest, avoiding the Maginot Line - a system of fortifications along France’s border with Germany. Allied forces and German forces stared at each other. Became known as Stizkrieg

The Phony War Ends