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Racism and Racial Stereotype. Group 4 Alice, Angela, Chelle, Josephine, Nancy, Penny. Report Outline. Introduction to Racism Bamboozled: (1) Stereotypes ; (2) Who is Black and what is Black ? Save the Last Dance Racial Identities Power Relations and in Bamboozled

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racism and racial stereotype

Racism and Racial Stereotype

Group 4

Alice, Angela, Chelle,

Josephine, Nancy, Penny

report outline
Report Outline
  • Introduction to Racism
  • Bamboozled: (1) Stereotypes; (2) Who is Black and what is Black?
  • Save the Last Dance
  • Racial Identities Power Relations and in Bamboozled
  • Analysis of the 2 Films: Comparison and Contrast
  • Conclusion
introduction what is racism
Introduction: What is Racism?
  • Starting Question: What comes to your mind when you hear, “racism?”
  • Bigotry: An obstinate or blind attachment to a particular belief, unreasonable enthusiasm in favor of a party, sect or opinion; excessive prejudice or intolerance (Newman 9).
  • Bigotry turns to racism
racism
Racism

Any attitude, belief, behavior, or institutional arrangement that tends to favor over one race or ethnic group over another (Newman and E.N.Layfield, 9).

4 types of racism
4 Types of Racism
  • Attitudinal Racism: General dislike of a certain race or group without reason
  • Ideological Racism: Believing some races superior to others. Ex: Adolf Hitler.
  • Individual/ Group RacismEx: KKK.
  • Institutional Racism: Create patterns of injustice and inequality because of skin color. Ex: voting (1960), high price of colleges in America. (Newman 11-15)
3 assumptions on u s racism
3 Assumptions on U.S. Racism
  • Black people in America live a better life.
  • Americans set a good example in setting positive aspects of the Black experience.
  • Americans have Civil Rights Movement and Black Nationalism, suggest equal opportunities for Blacks in work force and education.

Are They Completely Correct?

the fact is
The Fact is…
  • Equal opportunities is not the case between the White and Black in America (Small 8).
  • Whites, and middle class blacks are proud of him. But it is difficult for the young brother on the corner to see Powell as a hero. (Voice, 26 March 1991:11)
history of racism in america 1
History of Racism in America (1)
  • America was a former colonial plantation society, characterized by immigration, forced or voluntary. Ex: Slavery and foreign labor & Indians banished to reservations.
  • European immigrants protected their interests, forcing exclusion of Blacks Ex: Radicalized discrimination on the Blacks in the most disadvantaged sections of the society & the segregation in 1960s.
some sad facts
Some Sad Facts
  • The “Color Line” exists, the Blacks remained at the bottom of societies.
  • Inequality of Blacks represent they are victimized.
  • Stereotypes of Blacks include images of poverty, educational failure, unemployment, teenage childbirth and crime. Ex: Angelique’s Letter
history of racism in america 2
History of Racism in America (2)
  • In the 1980s, economic fortunes of the Blacks have gone to extremes, but still can’t be compared with the Whites.
  • Blacks account for only 4% with assets of $50,000 or more. While Black income is roughly 60% of the whites, the median net worth of black households in 1988 was merely 1/10 of the whites. (Small, 40-50)
racism in america jobs
Racism in America-- Jobs
  • 70% of Black men (16+ in work force), compared with 77% of White men.
  • 15% of Black men and 30% of the white worked in professional specialties in the 1980s, while women was 19% and 26%.
  • Unemployment: 11.8% for Black men, 4.8 White.
  • Black labor grow to 20% in 2000, and the greatest fear is US economy become 2-tier.
racism in america schools
Racism in America– Schools
  • Occurrences of segregation, inferior faculties & limited resources. Ex: Washington D.C., Detroit and NYC at the end of 1980s.
  • The performance of Blacks, in schools, is relatively problematic.
situation in the 1980s
Situation in the 1980s

In 1986, 27.5% of black school children, and 30% Hispanic school children enrolled in 25 largest central city school districts. However, only 3.3% of all whites attend these schools (Small, 54).

racism in america health care
Racism in America– Health Care
  • 2 studies show that treatment vary with the race of patients and not the insurance coverage of the patient. Ex: Dr. Katherine L. Kahn.
  • Or, the Veteran Administration Hospitals.
dr kahn s quote
Dr. Kahn. ‘s Quote

Within each type of hospital, patients who were black or from poor neighborhoods got less care (Newman and Eleanor Newman Layfield, 76).

dr eric peterson
Dr. Eric Peterson

Dr. Eric Peterson, a cardiologist, helped to conduct the studies, suggest that evidence seems to be that the disparity in treatment points to racism as a factor when patients have the same health coverage and socioeconomic backgrounds (Newman and E. Newman Layfield, 76).

racism today in america
Racism Today in America
  • Civil Rights Act created in 1964, stopping discrimination in employment based on race, religion, gender or national origin.
  • The results? Elis Cose
  • Re-segregation on College campus
  • Public schools new re-segregation policy, and integrated schools are under attack.
elis cose
Elis Cose

New racists claim that African American are like products, and need to be careful about what is said about their work (Newman and Eleanor Newman Layfield, 82).

bamboozled
Bamboozled

Stereotype

By Chelle Ke

outline
Stereotype:

Why & how ?

Slaves-

Uncle Tom

Black women-

Mammy

Coon

Jolly Nigger Bank

Black men

Outline
why there re stereotype 1
Why there’re stereotype? (1)
  • Every stereotype emerges in the wake of a pre-existing ideology which deforms it, appropriates it, and naturalizes it.
  • The blackface stereotype too, by deforming the body, silences it and leaves room only for white supremacy to speak through it.
why there re stereotype 2
Why there’re stereotype? (2)
  • The blackface stereotypes represent the white Souths retreat from the American Revolution, i.e., Reconstruction, the civil rights movement, and desegregation.

In other words, the stereotypes help to maintain the myth of the gothic Old South and deny the changes in our contemporary society.

--Kenneth Goings, inMammy and Uncle Mose: Black American Collectibles and American Stereotyping (1994),

how stereotypes usually seen
How stereotypes usually seen?
  • The way stereotypes work with pastiche, caricature, and symbols:

stereotypes always rob people of their history and shun their realism. It is in this violent and aggressive manner that the stereotype sends its message ,which is automatically absorbed by the viewer/reader, and which replaces history.

In Bamboozled…

slaves
Slaves
  • Many of the first Africans in America are not slaves but indentured servants, like many of the first Europeans.
  • Race slavery becomes law. Over a period of 400 years, the African slave trade that began with the Portuguese in 1441 captures 40 million Africans; 20 million arrive in the Americas. While the captives bring with them little material evidence of their culture, their music and dance have a lasting impact on that of the New World.
uncle tom
Uncle Tom
  • “Uncle Tom's Cabin” by Harriet Beecher Stowe was the first social protest novel published in the United States.
  • Described by Stowe herself as a "series of sketches" depicting the human cruelty of slavery, opens with a description of Arthur Shelby's Kentucky plantation during the antebellum period.
the black women mammy 1
The Black Women :Mammy(1)
  • Domesticity :
  • *Is tied to the myth of the South.
  • *Pastiche - cookie-jar, kitchen decoration, or housewares
  • ¤ rotund, dressed in a long robe
  • ¤apron
  • ¤head kerchief,
  • ¤big smile face.
  • ¤carrying a bowl or a white baby in her arms.
slide28

Mammy(2)

  • Mammy’s uniform:

*Organizes and disciplines

*Domesticity and morality

*The apron: appropriates and naturalizes

permanent fixture of the white mansion.

Neat and civilized ?

coon zip coon
Coon (Zip Coon)
  • Uncivilized nature
  • Sexuality, and evil: oversexed tragic mulattos
  • Opposite to Mammy: physically punished, exposed to public ridicule for lacking decorum and decency.
  • Half-human and half-animal.
  • Pastiche : naked or scantily dressed ,looking as if intoxicated by sexual desire
black men
Black Men
  • Uncivilized sleep & eat, slackers
  • Thief, poverty chickens, watermelons
  • Violence, sexual abusing rape, incest
  • Amusing rap, dancing
  • Pastiche : The disproportionately large upper torsos of the black men, with long faces and cheeks bigger than their heads…

Jolly Nigger Bank,

black men 2
Black Men 2
  • Cannibal :

*white, black & red

*half-human and half-animal

*red - a symbol of cannibalism

*bigger-than-normal teeth, with wide gaps between them.

In Bamboozled…

jolly nigger bank 1
Jolly Nigger Bank 1
  • Ridicule :

*piggy banks in the shape of female and male busts

*stereotype –

a) zombie-like

b) mouth is wide open, waiting to receive coins from the empty hand.

c)vacant eyes, and distended hands

jolly nigger bank 2
Jolly Nigger Bank 2
  • It is in this sense that the coin-swallowing becomes a metaphor for an appetite for human flesh, our skin. cannibal
  • black people as robots or coin-swallowing monsters.

In Bamboozled…

jolly nigger bank 134
Jolly Nigger Bank 1
  • Ridicule is also reflected in making piggy banks in the shape of female and male busts, "Jolly Nigger Banks", in which the stereotype's mouth is wide open, waiting to receive coins from the empty hand. This toy for white children teaches them economic frugality at the same time as they learn to treat black people as robots or coin-swallowing monsters.
jolly nigger bank 235
Jolly Nigger Bank 2
  • These photographs are frightening because the zombie-like characters seem to emerge out of the dark, with an unconscious motion which derives from their open mouths, vacant eyes, and distended hands. It is in this sense that the coin-swallowing becomes a metaphor for an appetite for human flesh, our skin.

In Bamboozled…

minstrel show
Minstrel Show
  • White performer Thomas Dartmouth "Daddy" Rice adds a new twist to the tradition of mimicking African Americans, and his "Jim Crow" dance earns him the title "father of blackface minstrelsy." Minstrel shows produce two major stereotypes that haunt black performers for years -- the clown and the dandy.
black men37
Black Men
  • The stereotype of black men who do not fit the mold of the docile servant of the masters kitchen and mansion is equally rich in Africanist symbolism.
black men 238
Black Men 2
  • Cannibal : For example, the disproportionately large upper torsos of the black men, with long faces and cheeks bigger than their heads ,are a sign that they are half-human and half-animal. They can fool nobody, even when they wear a suit, tie, and hat, because their lips are painted with blood, which often spills over and creates a match with the tie. Red, as a symbol of cannibalism, is the dominant signifier here.
  • The motif of cannibalism also circulates through the laughter of the stereotypes which reveal their bigger-than-normal teeth, with wide gaps between them.
black men 3 white black red
Black Men 3:white, black & red
  • The imminent darkness and the red symbolize our latent fear of cannibalism, and other awful things associated with Africa.
  • Finally, the relationship between the black, the red, and the white gives us the stereotype ,just as for Freud, the relationship of the dream to its latent meaning is the key to an interpretation of the problem.
minstrel show40
Minstrel Show
  • White performer Thomas Dartmouth "Daddy" Rice adds a new twist to the tradition of mimicking African Americans, and his "Jim Crow" dance earns him the title "father of blackface minstrelsy." Minstrel shows produce two major stereotypes that haunt black performers for years -- the clown and the dandy.

In Bamboozled…

bamboozled42

Bamboozled Ⅱ

Who is Black ?

& What is Black?

outline43
Outline
  • Questions
  • Black people: Delacroix, Manray(Mantan)&Womack(Sleep ‘n Eat), Julius & Mau Maus, Sloan, Junebug
  • White people: Dunwitty, the Yale lawyer
questions
Questions
  • Is blackness only in skin color?
  • Is blackness defined by specific mannerisms?
  • Is it only possible for black to originate from having a drop of black blood?
delacroix
Delacroix
  • Satire la: a literary work in which human vice or folly is ridiculed or attacked scornfully...2. Irony, derision or caustic wit used to attack or expose folly, vice or stupidity.“
  • He quotes Baldwin saying, "People pay for what they do...what they have allowed themselves to become...by the lives they lead," and then recalls Junebug's admonition to "always keep them laughing."
manray womack
Manray &Womack
  • Ignorant, dull-witted, lazy and unluck.
  • They are gonna make us laugh, they‘re gonna make us cry, they’re gonna make us feel good to be American.
  • The name, Sleep n’ Eat, signified "the idea being...a black man was content as long as he had a place to sleep and enough to eat."
sloan julius mau maus
strong, wronged, avenging, abandoned, alternatively determined and confused woman

They trickery, angry, dark, sullen, depressed, wicked, blacklisted…..

Sloan Julius &Mau Maus
dunwitty yale lawyer
I am blacker than you. I have a black wife and two biracial kids.

I got my ph.D. in African-American studies from Yale.

Dunwitty & Yale lawyer
outline50
Outline
  • The Interpretation of the Movie --- Racial relations
  • The Problems of the Movie

--- Simplify the problems

(e.g. Ghetto/Drugs & Violence)

--- Idealize the situation/ Fantasy

(e.g. Sarah’s easy life in black society)

i white black
I. White  Black
  • Telephone Call --- “ No, I haven’t see anyone get shot yet, God, I didn't move to Bosnia.”

“They got white guys at your school?”

B. On the Metro --- play a childish game to shock the white woman

The boundaries between two different

races.

ii black white
II. Black White
  • Dancing Club Stepps

--- Nikky: “Negro Club”

different views about “negro”

--- MalaKai: “That’s oil, you’re milk, there’s no point to mix”.

different classes of people cannot be together

slide53
B. Restaurant --- “Snowflaking”

Derek’s view v.s. Others’ view

C. Sara and Nikky’s fight --- White woman conquering the black world

Sarah’s unawareness about racism

D. At the clinic--- Chenille agrees with Nikky’s point

a. Different worlds v.s. one world

b. Sarah’s ignorance

iii black black
III. Black Black

• Conflicts between Derek and Malakai

1. Derek believes if he can do something of himself, so can Malakai

2. Malakai believes that revengeis the way to save his dignity.

Different view & different future

Dream vs. Corruption

slide55

Different races should not be together

relationships crosses racial boundaries

ghetto
Ghetto
  • Disorder environment

1.Guns & Drugs the situation cannot be improved

2.Violence  the only way to solve problems

B. Teenager’s values

1. Continuous corruption

2. No future

3. For example, Malakai.

Simply take over those problems without offering deeper explanations

sara s easiness
Sara’s Easiness
  • The unreasonable reaction toward getting into the black community.
  • Her ignorance toward the racial theme.
  • The director makes things too easy for Sara.
bamboozled58

Bamboozled

Racial Identity and Power Relations

black separatists
Black Separatists –
  • Believe in their black history and heritage and appreciate what they learned in the hood, so as to reject the Whites’ expectations from the blacks. They do not think the White can fully interpret the significance of Black people’s culture and blues. They tend to represent their dignity by not appreciating the white value system and practice their self-determination by reminding themselves of the amount of degradation they have suffered from the white and living with their past historical injuries. They tried to achieve the reality of a black-staffed, black-controlled, and black-financed society, in which the White can no longer interfere with the roles blacks play.
  • Ex: Junebug
black separatists60
Black Separatists –
  • Ex: Junebug – performing in a small black club. Treasures his dignity, unwilling to entertain the whites by devaluating self, so as to leave the Hollywood. Shares no big fame as Delacroix but content with his black identity.
black militant separatists
Black militant separatists
  • Share similar thoughts with separatists, only through more aggressive means.
  • They tend to change the Whites’ stereotype of the Blacks, that they are not unable to organize themselves, but because the misunderstanding of the Whites that they cannot succeed without the White as backbone. They are to define their own roles and view the Whites with their own values.
blacks struggling for survival
Blacks struggling for survival
  • Blacks that struggle for survival are often confused with their identity. They may try to challenge the society and end in vain, or grab at most opportunities to improve their living standards. They are often regarded as unworthy and incapable of adapting to the White values. Through them the black inferiority is being reinforced and so are more easily submitted to Whites’ power.
  • Ex: Manray, Wormak, Mau Mau Crews.
blacks struggling for survival63
Blacks struggling for survival
  • E.g. Manray – performed tap-dance for a living.
  • Join Mantan show with esteem to prove his talent but is confused by his black identity and the whites’ interest.
  • Died as a victim of the media.
  • Wormak – join the minstrel show for a living.
  • Having no permanent shelter but is willing to give up the disgusting industry.
  • Mau Mau Crews – a group of rappers having the attempt to give in and entertain the public.
  • Despise the way the Mantan show represents the Negroes.
  • End in brutal action executing Manray.
black assimilationist
Black Assimilationist
  • Thinks that they have to accept the Whites’ value and assassinate their black character in order to achieve liberation from discrimination and poverty. Allowed the white people to interpret and devalue the black race. Escaping from black identity.
  • Ex: Delacroix
black assimilationist65
Black Assimilationist
  • E.g. Delacroix – a film writer, under Dunwitty.
  • Conduct the Mantan show, but having no opportunity to refuse Dunwitty’s demands to change the style of the show.
  • Becomes a target of his own satire.
  • Quite a success at career but a failure in recognizing black dignity.
whites
Whites
  • They take away black achievements and deny blacks’ human dignity by misinterpreting the blacks cultural heritage and focus merely on stereotypes.
  • Racism is still alive through the spreading idea that Whites’ value system is better and by using successful Blacks, who dumped the Black identity in order to lead a better life, they confirm the idea that White power is superior.
  • They never show respect or participate to blacks’ true identity, which is full of anxiety and fear, but only blindly assume they can take over the blacks’ value system and show their help them by means of stopping the blacks’ self-determination.
  • Ex: Dunwitty
whites67
Whites
  • Ex: Dunwitty is the producer, the one with money.
  • Have the power to make decisions.
  • Though not a black, financing a black program and making free adjustments.
  • Confident in self-identity.
  • Able to give judgments and demands.
words to think about
Words to Think About

Alexix de Tocquevile, a French historian, predicted that changing the law to abolish slavery would be easy compared to changing people’s minds about slavery. Over 30 years after the Civil Rights Act, we still face problems that can be traced back to the days of slavery (Newman and E. Newman Layfield, 77).

works cited
Works Cited
  • Small, Stephen. Racialised Barriers. London: Routledge, 1994.
  • Newman, Gerald and Eleanor Newman Layfield. Racism: Divided by Color. Springfield: Enslow Publishers Inc, 1995.
  • Manthia Diawara, The Blackface Stereotype. Black Cultural Studies Site,1998.