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Different Types of Robots Robot Arms (Fixed Robots) Mobile Robots Humanoid Robots Legged Robots Wheel Robots 3 wheels 2 Driver wheels, 1 Caster 1 Driver wheel, 2 Casters 4 wheels Casters make diverse problems in the control of the robot Wheel Robot Main Components Main Components

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different types of robots
Different Types of Robots
  • Robot Arms (Fixed Robots)
  • Mobile Robots
    • Humanoid Robots
      • Legged Robots
    • Wheel Robots
      • 3 wheels
        • 2 Driver wheels, 1 Caster
        • 1 Driver wheel, 2 Casters
      • 4 wheels
        • Casters make diverse problems in the control of the robot
wheel robot main components
Wheel Robot Main Components
  • Main Components
    • Mechanics
      • Wheels
      • Driver Motor (s)
      • Power Transmission System
    • Electronics
      • Controller Board
        • Needing feedback from environment
      • Sensors

We are now discussing some of the above topics

different types of motors
Different Types of Motors
  • DC Motors
    • You can simply control it
  • AC Motors
    • It’s difficult to be controlled but it can be used in high power applications
  • Servo Motors
    • You have complete control on the shaft angle
different types of feed back
Different Types of Feed Back
  • Sensors
    • IR Sensors
    • Pressure Sensors
    • Light Sensors
    • Temperature Sensors
  • Encoder
why do we use power transmission systems
Why do we use Power Transmission Systems?
  • To reduce Angular Velocity
  • To increase Torque

P = (T . w) = cte.

Different Transmission Systems

    • Gear
      • Hard manufacturing

and adjustment

    • Pulley

So w => T

slide7
Gear
  • Gears are used to change the speed and force of the motor. You can use gears to:
      • Speed up or slow down your robot.
      • Make your robot stronger or weaker.
  • There are many different types of gears
      • Spur Gear
      • Bevel Gear
      • Worm Gear
      • Rack & Pinion
slide8
Gear
  • Spur gears are wheels with teeth
slide9
Gear
  • Bevel gears mesh at right angles, so they change the direction of rotation.
slide10
Gear
  • Worm gears look like screws. They have many special properties.
slide11
Gear
  • Rack & pinion gears turn rotational motion into straight-line motion.
slide12

Where does all this “torque” come from?

Consider a pair of gears that are meshed together.

F

A torque on this axle...

…produces a force at the tooth.

t

r

The moment arm is the radius of the gear.

Remember: t = F x r

slide13

The force from the small gear’s tooth pushes against

the large gear’s tooth. This creates an equal (and opposite)

force in the large gear. This is Newton’s 3rd Law.

F

…and produces a

larger torque on this axle.

r

t

The force acts through this larger moment arm...

slide14

F1 = -F2

t1

r2

r1

t2

t1 = F1 x r1

t2 = F2 x r2

Analyzing the forces...

  • F1 = t1 / r1
  • F2 = t2 / r2
  • F1 = - F2
  • t1 / r1 = -t2 / r2
  • -t2 / t1= r2 / r1

The ratio of torques is the ratio of the gear radii.

This is the gear ratio!

idler gear
Idler Gear
  • An idler gear is a gear that is inserted between two other gears. Idler gears do not affect the gear ratio between the input and output gears. The gear ratio would be computed just the same if there were no idler gear.
idler gear16
Idler Gear
  • Recall that when using spur gears, the output axle rotates in the opposite direction as the input axle.
  • You can also use idler gears to change the spacing between the input and output axles
  • Remember, idler gears do not change the gear ratio
slide17
Gear

The gear ratio of this gear box is 75 to 1

That means the last axle rotates 75 times slower than

the first axle. It also means the last axle has 75 times

the torque as the first axle.

slide18

Try this experiment.

Have one person turn

this wheel.

And have another person

try to hold on to this wheel.

slide19

Gears can increase the torque (and force) that they exert

on something. This is known as mechanical advantage.

torque increases

BUT, it comes at a price. Do you know what it is?

slide20

2

D2

w2

w1

D1

1

C

Belt Drives

  • Uses friction to transmit power

Velocity Ratio:

D1.w1=D2.w2

belt drive basics
Belt Drive Basics

Size

Center Distance

(center shaft to center shaft)

Shaft Size

for DR, can use NEMA frame

Take-up/Installation Allowance

DR

DN

Size

Motor Nameplate

belt drive basics22
Belt Drive Basics

4”

Speed-Down

N

10”

R

1750 rpm

10”

R

Speed-Up

N

4”

Speed Ratio = 2.5

700 rpm

4375 rpm

Ratio always greater than 1

how to assemble our robot
How to assemble our Robot
  • Here is our package
how to assemble our robot25
How to assemble our Robot
  • Bottom view of the robot
how to assemble our robot26
How to assemble our Robot
  • Sensor board assembly