WHAT’S IN YOUR WATER WELL? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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WHAT’S IN YOUR WATER WELL?

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  1. WHAT’S IN YOUR WATER WELL? ANTHONY W. GORODY, PH.D., CPG-9798

  2. WHAT’S IN YOUR WATER WELL?INTERPRETING LABORATORY DATA • WHERE DOES YOUR WATER COME FROM? • WHAT CONSTITUENTS ARE DISSOLVED IN GROUNDWATER? • WHAT FACTORS CONTROL THE CONCENTRATION OF DISSOLVED CONSTITUENTS? • REGULAR MAINTENANCE OF YOUR WATER WELL • WHAT TO LOOK FOR • WHAT TO DO

  3. AQUIFERS TYPES ALLUVIAL BEDROCK COLORADO RIVER GLENWOOD SPRINGS RECHARGE RECHARGE SILT DIVIDE CREEK RIFLE RECHARGE RECHARGE WHERE DOES YOUR WATER COME FROM? PHYSIOGRAPHICSETTING RECHARGE DISCHARGE

  4. TYPICAL GEOLOGIC MAP HUNTER MESA AND GIBSON GULCH QUADRANGLES AND WATER WELLS SHEET WASH 311 WASATCH TERTIARY BEDROCK ALLUVIUM LANDSLIDES WIND BLOWN SNOW MELT IS PRINCIPAL SOURCE OF RECHARGE

  5. SPRING ALLUVIAL AQUIFER RECHARGE INCREASING SALINITY IDEALIZED AQUIFER RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE BEDROCK AQUIFER RECHARGE UNCONFINED CONFINED BEDROCK AQUIFER DISCHARGE WATER WELL

  6. SANDS TEND TO BE DISCONTINOUS SANDY SANDY SANDY SILT AND SHALE SILT AND SHALE BEDROCK AQUIFERS ARE DISCONTINUOUS

  7. GROUNDWATER FLOW IN BEDROCK FUNNELED BY DISCONTINUOUS SWARMS OF NATURAL FRACTURES SNOW MELT IS PRINCIPAL SOURCE OF BEDROCK AQUIFER RECHARGE

  8. IRRIGATION SNOW-MELT IDEALIZED AQUIFER RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE ALLUVIAL AQUIFER RECHARGE WATER WELL

  9. TYPICAL ALLUVIAL AQUIFERS: DIVIDE CREEK NARROW VALLEY FILL

  10. TYPICAL ALLUVIAL AQUIFER TEXTURE

  11. SAND SILTY SAND SILTY SHALE SHALE GAMMA RAY TRACES OF SHALLOW SUBSURFACE SHOW POTENTIAL AQUIFERS ALLUVIUM BEDROCK EACH SAND MAY OR MAY NOT PRODUCE WATER

  12. TYPICAL WELL BORE CONSTRUCTION SANITARY SEAL GROUND LEVEL Or Gravel DEPENDING ON CONSTRUCTION, WATER CAN ORIGINATE FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES

  13. WELLS MUST BE PROPERLY CONSTRUCTED TO AVOID PROBLEMS WITH YIELD AND WATER QUALITY • WHAT IS SIGNIFICANCE OF DISCOLORED PAVEMENT IN WELL HOUSE?

  14. INTERPRETING THE SOURCE AND QUALITY OF WATER • FIELD DATA ACQUISITION • FIELD SAMPLE ACQUISITION • LABORATORY SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS • DISSOLVED SALTS AND MINERALS • DISSOLVED ORGANIC COMPONENTS • LAB REPORTS • INTERPRETATION

  15. FIELD SAMPLING AND LABORATORY ANALYSIS

  16. FIELD MEASURMENTS : WATER LEVEL, ACIDITY, CONDUCTIVITYDISSOLVED OXYGEN, TURBIDITY, SMELL, COLOR • SENSORS TO DETECT WATER QUALITY • FLOW THROUGH • INDIVIDUAL • WATER LEVEL

  17. SAMPLES COLLECTED AND SENT TO LABORATORIES FOR ANALYSIS

  18. WHAT LABORATORY DATA REPORTS CONTAIN • GENERAL QUALITY INDICATORS: Total salt content (< 500 mg/L), Hardness (<180 mg/L), Turbidity (<20 NTU). • DISSOLVED MINERAL SALT COMPOSITION : • INORGANICHEALTH IMPURITIES: Fluoride (< 4.0 mg/L), Selenium (< 0.05 mg/L) , Nitrates (< 10 mg/L), Nitrites (<1 mg/L), • ORGANIC HEALTH IMPURITIES: BTEX - Benzene (<5 ppb), Toluene (<1 mg/L), Ethyl benzene (<700 ppb), Xylene (<10 mg/L), • NUISANCE CONSTITUENTS: Iron (< 0.3 mg/L), Manganese (< 0.05 mg/L), Sulfate (< 250 mg/L), Chlorides (< 250 mg/L); • BACTERIA • DISSOLVED NATURAL GAS

  19. DISSOLVED SALT AND MINERAL CONCENTRATIONS USED TO DEFINEACCEPTABLE WATER QUALITY STANDARDS (mg/L) (mg/L) http://www.epa.gov/safewater/mcl.html

  20. ANALYSES OF DISSOLVEDORGANIC CARBON COMPOUNDS:BTEX & MTBE POTENTIAL CONTAMINANT SOURCES: LEAKY FUEL TANKS IMPROPER DUMPING ACCIDENTAL RELEASE OIL AND GAS WELLS http://www.epa.gov/safewater/mcl.html

  21. Methane Ethane Propane ISOMERS Pentane Isopentane Butane Isobutane ANALYSES OF DISSOLVEDORGANIC CARBON COMPOUNDS:NATURAL GAS COMPOUNDS ISOMERS

  22. DISSOLVED GAS CONCERNS • GASEOUS HYDROCARBONS ARE NOT TOXIC • LIGHT HYDROCARBONS ARE SIMPLE ASPHYXIANTS • PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO BE AVOIDED WHEN GAS DISPLACES BREATHABLE OXYGEN • DIZZINESS, HEADACHES, LOSS OF JUDGEMENT: • METHANE 1% IN AIR • ETHANE: 13% IN AIR • BUTANE: 2% IN AIR • LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL): • METHANE: 5% OF AIR VOLUME • ETHANE: 3% OF AIR VOLUME • PROPANE: 2.12 % OF AIR VOLUME • BUTANE: 1.6% OF AIR VOLUME

  23. CONFINEMENT WITHOUT VENTILATION 10 mg/l EQUIVALENT TO AN 80 HOUR SHOWER 5’ 250 gallons 5’ LEL METHANE 5’ 125 FT3 @6000 feet and 77°F WHY MONITOR DISSOLVED METHANE CONCENTRATIONS? • < 2 mg/L : below threshold for exsolution, concentration too low for forensic analysis • > 10 mg/L : can concentrate to LEL if allowed to accumulate in unventilated spaces • 22 mg/L : approximate saturation concentration at 7000 feet above sea level ; effervescent

  24. SOURCES OF NATURAL GAS • NATURAL • THERMOGENIC • PRESSURE COOKING OF RAW ORGANIC MATERIAL DURING BURIAL • PETROLEUM SOURCE • ASSOCIATED WITH OIL • MIGRATED FROM OIL • SECONDARY CRACKING OF OIL • MICROBIAL • MARSH AND LANDFILL GAS: BACTERIAL FERMENTATION REACTIONS • GROUNDWATER GAS: REDUCTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE • ABIOGENIC • POLYMERIZATION REACTIONS • CONTAMINANT • ACCIDENTAL OIL AND GAS WELL EMISSIONS • ACCIDENTAL PIPELINE EMMISSIONS • LAND FILLS • LIVESTOCK FARMING

  25. BULK OF EARTH’S NEAR SURFACE ORGANIC CARBON LOCKED UP AS MICROBIAL METHANE IN ICE

  26. MICROBIAL METHANE LOCKED IN OCEANIC ICE DEPOSITS (HYDRATES)

  27. 65% OF ALL SITES SAMPLED IN THE SAN JUAN BASIN CONTAIN MEASURABLE AMOUNTS OF DISSOLVED MICROBIAL METHANE 2109 RECORDS 1034 WATER WELLS 445 SINGLE 589 MULTIPLE SAN JUAN BASIN

  28. DISSOLVED METHANE IN GROUNDWATER, RATON BASIN BOTH MICROBIAL AND ASSOCIATED WITH COAL Number of samples

  29. DISSOLVED METHANE FROM SHALLOW COAL OUTCROP

  30. PRODUCING WELL WATER WELL 1 MILE TOP OF GAS THERMOGENIC GAS FROM PRODUCING INTERVAL IN PICEANCE BASIN NOT CLOSE TO SURFACE SURFICIAL DEPOSITS WASATCH FM MV WILLIAMS FORK - ILES MANCOS SHALE

  31. GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE ON SEISMIC LINE SHOWING LOCALIZED FOLDING AND FAULTING WILLIAMS FORK TOP GAS ROLLINS

  32. HOW DO WE CHARACTERIZE GASSOURCES ?

  33. DETECTING METHANE WITH A HAND HELD DETECTOR

  34. ANALYZING GAS WITH A CHROMATOGRAPH IN THE FIELD IN THE LABORATORY

  35. SAMPLING FOR DISSOLVED GAS CONCENTRATION AND COMPOSITION

  36. FINGERPRINTING GAS SOURCES COMPOSITION • NON HYDROCARBONS: N2, Ar, O2, CO2, H2S, He, H2 • GAS RATIOS • Relative abundance of non-hydrocarbons to hydrocarbons • HYDROCARBONS: C1, C2, C3, nC4, iC4, nC5, iC5 • GAS RATIOS • Relative abundance of hydrocarbons • STABLE ISOTOPES • Carbon • Deuterium

  37. PRODUCED GAS MAMM CREEK AREA Butane Isobutane GAS RATIOS HELP TO DEFINE THE ORIGIN OF PRODUCED GAS: PRODUCED GAS DENVER BASIN

  38. Isotope 12C 13C 14C Protons 6 6 6 Neutrons 6 7 8 Abundance 98.98% 1.11% trace Type Stable Stable Unstable STABLE ISOTOPES ARE USEFUL TOOLSUSED TO DETERMINE THE ORIGIN OF FLUIDS AND GASES. STABLE ISOTOPE FINGERPRINTING Many elements can exist in different forms known as isotopes. They differ in the number of neutrons in the nucleus but do not differ in the number of protons. Stable isotopes are not radioactive. Carbon Isotopes: Hydrogen Isotopes

  39. MICROBIAL REDUCTION CARBON DIOXIDE THERMOGENIC ALTERATION MIXING MICROBIAL FERMENTATION MARSH GAS DISSOLVED METHANE IN GROUNDWATER NEAR SILTIS OF MICROBIAL ORIGIN

  40. PUMPING AND DRAWDOWN: WHERE DOES THE WATER COME FROM?

  41. CaCO3 LIME : CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM BICARBONATE Na2SO4 Na2SO4 GLAUBER SALT – SODIUM SULFATE NaHCO3 SODIUM BICARBONATE NaHCO3 NaCl SODIUM CHLORIDE PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS OF GROUNDWATER IN THIS AREA COMPOSITION AND CONCENTRATION VARY WITH DEPTH

  42. DILUTE CONCENTRATED DISSOLVED SALT AND METHANE CONCENTRATIONS IN WELL WATER PRINCIPALLY CHANGE AS A RESULT OF CHANGING MIXING RATES

  43. REDUCTION IN YIELD RATES FROM ANY SINGLE AQUIFER WILL CHANGE WATER COMPOSITION WATER LEVEL WHAT IF THE SODIUM-CHLORIDE BEARING AQUIFER CARRIES MICROBIAL METHANE?

  44. EXAMPLE OF WELLBORE MIXING AND DILUTION METHANE CONCENTRATION VARIES PROPORTIONATELY WITH CHANGE IN AQUIFER CHEMISTRY

  45. FACTORS INFLUENCING CHANGES IN AQUIFER YIELD AND WATER QUALITY • POPULATION GROWTH • RATE OF RECHARGE VS. RATE OF CONSUMPTION – LOCAL DEPLETION • CLIMATIC VARIABILITY • SEASONAL CHANGES • LONG TERM CHANGES: E.G. DROUGHT • WELL BORE DAMAGE • FOULING: NATURAL BACTERIA

  46. POPULATION GROWTH WILL HAVE LOCAL IMPACT ON SMALLER AQUIFERS WESTERN SLOPE

  47. SEASONAL FLOW INFLUENCES THE RATE OF FRESH WATER RECHARGE TO SHALLOW AQUIFERS

  48. LONG TERM DROUGHT IS HAVING A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON RECHARGE http://cwcb.state.co.us/owc/Drought_Water/pdf/Chapter%206.pdf

  49. REDUCTION REACTIONS Loss of dissolved oxygen Loss of Nitrate ( NO3- -> NH4+) Manganese Reduction ( Mn+4->Mn+3 ) Iron Reduction ( Fe+3 –> Fe+2 ) Sulfate Reduction ( SO4-2 -> HS- -> So ) CO2 Reduction ( CO2-> CH4 ) Nitrogen Reduction ( N2 -> NH4+ ) OXIDATION REACTIONS Oxygen formation Denitrification ( N2 -> NO3- ) Manganese Oxidation ( Mn+3->Mn+2 ) Ammonia Oxidation ( NH4+ -> NO3- ) Iron Oxidation ( Fe+2 –> Fe+3 ) Sulfate Oxidation ( So -> HS- -> SO4-2 ) Oxidation of Organics ( CH4 -> CO2 ) CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN AQUIFERS ARE MEDIATED BY NATURAL BACTERIA OXIC + - ANOXIC

  50. BACTERIA CAN SEVERLY IMPACT THE AESTHETIC QUALITY OF WATER 80% OF WELL CLOGGING EVENTS MEDIATED BY BACTERIA TURBID SLIME