Insecticide Composition Insecticide = Active Ingredient + Additives
Solutions Emulsion concentrates Water dispersible powders Suspension concentrates Baits Dusts Granules and pellets Fumigants Controlled release formulations Spray adjuvants Formulations
Solutions • DDT used to be applied in this way. • Now solution are used only for ultra low-volume applications.
A what ?! Emulsion concentrates • If insoluble in water… then use an emulsifying agent.
Emulsion concentrates • Emulsifying agent: Substance used to facilitate the dispersion of an immiscible material in a solvent. Dissolve insecticide on: organic solvent + emulsifier Dissolve mix on water
Water dispersible powders • Insoluble • Dispersed in water. • Insecticide can be a solid or a liquid.
Suspension concentrates • Solid held in suspension
Insect attractant + insecticide Attractant: - Food source - Pheromone Baits
Inert carrier + insecticide - Seed dressing - Foliage Dust
Inert carrier + insecticide Safe Easy to handle Precise targeting Slow release Granules and Pellets > 2.5 mm 0.1-2.5 mm
Used in soil or enclosed spaces Stored products pests Gas proof spaces Costly Supervised Fumigants • Gases • Diffuse well • Absorbed through cuticule or resp. syst. • All are toxic to humans.
Controlled release formulations • Less active ingredient • Slow release
Dispersants Emulsifiers Surfactans Spreaders Penetrants Stickers Humectants Spray adjuvants
LD50 • Lethal dose • Dose at which 50% of the test insects are killed Insecticide Concentration
Insecticide efficiency depends on… • Insect behavior • Insect size • Insect instar • Insect habitat
The user also has a saying • Ease of use • Safety • Price
Insecticide inconveniences • Moving large volumes • Time invested in spraying • Safety concerns • Cost
Recognized since 1911 It became a concern in 1940s After the 1950s several cases observed
Ecotoxicology 99% 1%
What have insecticide companies done to help? • Increase power of active ingredients • Improve selectivity • Decreased residual life of insecticide • Safety checks have improved • Improved application methods