Insecticide Resistance and Ecotoxicology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Insecticide Resistance and Ecotoxicology

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  1. Insecticide Resistance and Ecotoxicology

  2. Insecticide Composition Insecticide = Active Ingredient + Additives

  3. Solutions Emulsion concentrates Water dispersible powders Suspension concentrates Baits Dusts Granules and pellets Fumigants Controlled release formulations Spray adjuvants Formulations

  4. Solutions • DDT used to be applied in this way. • Now solution are used only for ultra low-volume applications.

  5. A what ?! Emulsion concentrates • If insoluble in water… then use an emulsifying agent.

  6. Emulsion concentrates • Emulsifying agent: Substance used to facilitate the dispersion of an immiscible material in a solvent. Dissolve insecticide on: organic solvent + emulsifier Dissolve mix on water

  7. Water dispersible powders • Insoluble • Dispersed in water. • Insecticide can be a solid or a liquid.

  8. Suspension concentrates • Solid held in suspension

  9. Insect attractant + insecticide Attractant: - Food source - Pheromone Baits

  10. Inert carrier + insecticide - Seed dressing - Foliage Dust

  11. Inert carrier + insecticide Safe Easy to handle Precise targeting Slow release Granules and Pellets > 2.5 mm 0.1-2.5 mm

  12. Used in soil or enclosed spaces Stored products pests Gas proof spaces Costly Supervised Fumigants • Gases • Diffuse well • Absorbed through cuticule or resp. syst. • All are toxic to humans.

  13. Controlled release formulations • Less active ingredient • Slow release

  14. Dispersants Emulsifiers Surfactans Spreaders Penetrants Stickers Humectants Spray adjuvants

  15. It is not that simple…

  16. LD50 • Lethal dose • Dose at which 50% of the test insects are killed Insecticide Concentration

  17. Insecticide efficiency depends on… • Insect behavior • Insect size • Insect instar • Insect habitat

  18. Insecticide efficiency depends onalso…

  19. The user also has a saying • Ease of use • Safety • Price

  20. Insecticide inconveniences • Moving large volumes • Time invested in spraying • Safety concerns • Cost

  21. Insecticide Resistance

  22. Directional selection

  23. How does it work?

  24. Recognized since 1911 It became a concern in 1940s After the 1950s several cases observed

  25. Ecotoxicology 99% 1%

  26. Non-target

  27. What have insecticide companies done to help? • Increase power of active ingredients • Improve selectivity • Decreased residual life of insecticide • Safety checks have improved • Improved application methods

  28. The IPM proposal