insecticide resistance and ecotoxicology l.
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Insecticide Resistance and Ecotoxicology . Insecticide Composition. Insecticide = Active Ingredient + Additives. Solutions Emulsion concentrates Water dispersible powders Suspension concentrates Baits. Dusts Granules and pellets Fumigants Controlled release formulations

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insecticide composition
Insecticide Composition

Insecticide = Active Ingredient + Additives

formulations
Solutions

Emulsion concentrates

Water dispersible powders

Suspension concentrates

Baits

Dusts

Granules and pellets

Fumigants

Controlled release formulations

Spray adjuvants

Formulations
solutions
Solutions
  • DDT used to be applied in this way.
  • Now solution are used only for ultra low-volume applications.
emulsion concentrates

A what ?!

Emulsion concentrates
  • If insoluble in water… then use an emulsifying agent.
emulsion concentrates6
Emulsion concentrates
  • Emulsifying agent: Substance used to facilitate the dispersion of an immiscible material in a solvent.

Dissolve insecticide on:

organic solvent + emulsifier

Dissolve mix on water

water dispersible powders
Water dispersible powders
  • Insoluble
  • Dispersed in water.
  • Insecticide can be a solid or a liquid.
suspension concentrates
Suspension concentrates
  • Solid held in suspension
baits
Insect attractant + insecticide

Attractant:

- Food source

- Pheromone

Baits
slide10
Inert carrier + insecticide

- Seed dressing

- Foliage

Dust
granules and pellets
Inert carrier + insecticide

Safe

Easy to handle

Precise targeting

Slow release

Granules and Pellets

> 2.5 mm

0.1-2.5 mm

fumigants
Used in soil or enclosed spaces

Stored products pests

Gas proof spaces

Costly

Supervised

Fumigants
  • Gases
  • Diffuse well
  • Absorbed through cuticule or resp. syst.
  • All are toxic to humans.
controlled release formulations
Controlled release formulations
  • Less active ingredient
  • Slow release
spray adjuvants
Dispersants

Emulsifiers

Surfactans

Spreaders

Penetrants

Stickers

Humectants

Spray adjuvants
ld 50
LD50
  • Lethal dose
  • Dose at which 50% of the test insects are killed

Insecticide Concentration

insecticide efficiency depends on
Insecticide efficiency depends on…
  • Insect behavior
  • Insect size
  • Insect instar
  • Insect habitat
the user also has a saying
The user also has a saying
  • Ease of use
  • Safety
  • Price
insecticide inconveniences
Insecticide inconveniences
  • Moving large volumes
  • Time invested in spraying
  • Safety concerns
  • Cost
recognized since 1911
Recognized since 1911

It became a concern in 1940s

After the 1950s several cases observed

what have insecticide companies done to help
What have insecticide companies done to help?
  • Increase power of active ingredients
  • Improve selectivity
  • Decreased residual life of insecticide
  • Safety checks have improved
  • Improved application methods