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Elements of written communication: 1. Invention 2. Arrangement 3. Style. Strategy 1: Invention. Invention strategies help to generate material that is clear, forceful, convincing, and emotionally appealing Journalistic questions: who, what, when, where, why, how

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strategy 1 invention
Strategy 1: Invention
  • Invention strategies help to generate material that is clear, forceful, convincing, and emotionally appealing
  • Journalistic questions: who, what, when, where, why, how
  • 5 elements of Drama: Act (what happened), Scene (when and where did it happen), Agent (who did it), Agency (how was it done), Purpose (why was it done)
intuitive strategies
Intuitive Strategies
  • Free writing
  • Journaling
  • Conversation
  • Graphic organizers
  • Develop and inventory of material
logical invention
Logical invention
  • Argument in all writing = more than one side; writer presents his view
  • Enthymeme shows logical relationships between ideas and beliefs;
  • Syllogisms (kind of enthymeme) = patterns of logic
    • Major premise = generalization
    • Minor premise = example, particular
    • Conclusion = logical idea following
  • If major premise is not arguable, then syllogism is necessarily true
    • Major: All juniors must take English.
    • Minor: Mary is a junior.
    • Conclusion: Mary must take English.
  • If major premise is arguable, then syllogism is not necessarily true
    • Major: All English teachers are always nice.
    • Minor: Ms. S is an English teacher.
    • Conclusion: Ms. S is always nice.
    • Watch out for qualifiers like all, never, only, and always!
strategy 2 arrangement
Strategy 2: Arrangement
  • Order/Structure
  • Support different parts
  • Select the best ideas, examples, propositions from inventory
  • Decide how to order parts most effectively to achieve purpose
  • Choose type of composition based on context, purpose  varies
  • Beginning = central question, argument hints at development
  • Middle = reasons supported with examples, illustrations, details, stats
  • End = “so what?”, consider or act
visual arrangement
Visual Arrangement
  • OPTIC: Helps students to interpret elements of visuals by looking at
    • Overview
    • Parts
    • Title
    • Interrelationships
    • Conclusion
  • Students can then compare and contrast the meaning of these visuals to the meaning of the text.
3 style
3. Style
  • Need to write comes from the topic writer is inquiring about
  • Situation dictates choices
    • Jargon: insider status of writer, audience
    • You and I: analytical, academic v. personal
    • Contractions: formal v. informal
    • Passive v. Active voice
      • Active = Doer Action Receiver, stronger, forceful
      • Passive = Receiver Action (helping verb) by Doer; wordier, doer often concealed
  • 4 types: function follows form
    • Simple
    • Compound
    • Complex
    • Compound-complex
  • Loose v. Periodic
    • Loose = basic with details at the end
    • Periodic = basic with details at the beginning or in the middle
    • Changes emphasis, fluency, speed, movement
  • Measured, deliberate, balanced
  • Same grammatical form in all parts of the sentence
  • Gettysburg Address
  • Word choice/types
  • Dictio = style of speech, not just pronunciation
  • Situation, genre, purpose
word choices
Word Choices
  • General v. Specific: concrete words are generally more useful to reader
  • Formal v. Informal: understand occasion, p/a agr  pick a gender or pluralize ant.
  • Latin v. Anglo Saxon: more formal, longer v. more direct, shorter
  • Slang v. Jargon: obscure meaning; signals membership
  • Denotation v. Connotation: literal v. loaded
schemes and tropes
Schemes and Tropes
  • Schemes: artful variation from typical word arrangement in a sentence (syntax)
  • Trope: artful variation from typical way a word or idea is expressed (diction)
  • A different way of saying something about the world or a different way of seeing something about the world
schemes involving balance
Schemes Involving Balance
  • Zeugma = parallel words, phrases, clauses governed by a single word usually a verb; highlights similarities (e.g., I will wash the car and the dog.)
  • Antithesis = parallel words, phrases, clauses that contrast; highlights differences (e.g., To err is human; to forgive, divine).
  • Antimetabole = words repeated in different grammatical forms (e.g., When the going gets tough, the tough get going).
schemes involving interruption
Schemes Involving Interruption
  • Parenthesis = using dashes to set off words, phrases, or clauses; use ? or ! if an entire sentence acts as an interrupter
  • Appositive = two coordinating elements set side by side, the second modifying the first
schemes involving omission
Schemes Involving Omission
  • Ellipsis = any omission of words, the meaning of which provided in the overall context of the passage
  • Asyndeton = omission of conjunctions between related clauses
schemes involving repetition
Schemes Involving Repetition
  • Alliteration = beginning, middle consonants in adjacent words
  • Assonance = vowels in stressed syllables
  • Anaphora = same words in beginning of clauses
  • Epistrophe = same words at end of successive clauses
  • Anadiplosis = rep. end of one clause at the beginning of next
  • Climax = rep. of words, phrases, clauses in increasing importance
tropes of comparison
Tropes of Comparison
  • Simile = explicit
  • Metaphor = implied
  • Synecdoche = part for the whole
  • Metonymy = entity referred by one of its attributes
  • Personification = inanimate  human
  • Periphrasis = descriptive word/phrase replaces proper noun
tropes involving word play
Tropes Involving Word Play
  • Pun = two meanings
  • Anthimeria = verb replaces a noun
  • Onomatopoeia = sound reflects meaning
tropes involving statements and meaning
Tropes Involving Statements and Meaning
  • Hyperbole = overstatement
  • Litotes = understatement
  • Irony = words mean opposite of literal def.
  • Oxymoron = words with contradictory meaning are juxtaposed
  • Rhetorical Question = poses to move the development of the idea along or suggest a point