Chapter 4 Physical Development in Infancy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

issac
chapter 4 physical development in infancy n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 4 Physical Development in Infancy PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 4 Physical Development in Infancy

play fullscreen
1 / 30
Download Presentation
Chapter 4 Physical Development in Infancy
283 Views
Download Presentation

Chapter 4 Physical Development in Infancy

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 4Physical Development in Infancy

  2. Physical Growth • General principles • Directionality • Independence of systems • Canalization • Norms and Individual Differences • Represent average outcomes • Wide variation in individual differences occur within normal range • Growth affected by larger genetic and cultural factors

  3. Figure 4.2: Changes in Body Proportions from Prenatal Development Through Adulthood

  4. Figure 4.3: Differential Growth Rates in the Human Body

  5. Development of the CNS • Division of the nervous system that consists of brain and spinal cord • Processes information and directs behavior • Develops at many levels at the same time • Reciprocal interplay between biology and context affects brain development

  6. The Brain • Brain development • Subcortical structures • Limbic system • Cortex and association areas

  7. Brain Cells • Neurons • Cell body • Dendrites • Axon

  8. Figure 4.4: Areas of the Brain

  9. Figure 4.5: The Neuron and Synapse

  10. Cell Activity • Hubel and Wiesel – Microelectrode recording • Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings • Event-related potentials (ERPs) • Specific patterns of brain activity evoked by a specific stimulus

  11. Brain Plasticity • Experience-expectant processes • Prewired processes in the brain • Experience-dependent processes • Involve the active formation of new synaptic connections in response to experience • Types of plasticity • modifiability • compensation

  12. The Autonomic Nervous System • Regulates many body activities without voluntary control • Many systems cycle in identifiable and predictable rhythms. • States of arousal • Regulation of sleep-wake cycle

  13. Reflexes and Development • Reflexes are simple, involuntary responses to certain stimuli • Approach reflexes • Avoidance reflexes • Other reflexes • Most develop before birth and are normally present for four to eight months after birth

  14. Video: The Newborn: Reflex Development

  15. Video: Preventing SIDS

  16. Motor Development • Predictable sequence of developmental milestones • Motor development influenced by parental expectations and childrearing practices. • Milestones also affect parent-infant interaction. • Dynamic systems theory

  17. Figure 4.6: Negotiating Motor Tasks in Infancy

  18. Video: Infancy: Gross Motor

  19. Video: Infancy: Fine Motor

  20. Sensing and Perceiving • Five senses • Seeing • Pattern, shape, and form • Depth • Movement • Color • Hearing • Touching • Tasting • Smelling

  21. Video: Newborns and Infants: Sensation and Perception

  22. Figure 4.7: What the Infant Sees

  23. Figure 4.8: The Visual Cliff

  24. Video: Vision

  25. Figure 4.9: Infant Perception of Motion and Object Continuity

  26. Figure 4.10: Point-Light Walker Display

  27. Video: Smell

  28. Video: Taste

  29. Multimodal and Cross-Modal Perception • Our senses interact with another and fuse perceptions into wholes. • Information obtain by sight, sound, and touch are coordinated very early in life. • Self-knowledge might be based on the coordination of information.

  30. Experience and Early Perceptual Development • Perceptual experience is critical for normal psychological growth and development. • Perceptual development provides examples of the interplay between biology and experience.