Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison 4.1 Complete and Austere Institutions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison 4.1 Complete and Austere Institutions

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    1. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison 4.1 Complete and Austere Institutions Michel Foucault

    3. Prison constituted outside legal apparatus throughout the social body [231] Procedures for Distributing individuals Fixing them in space Classifying them Extracting from them the maximum in time and forces Training their bodies Coding their continuous behavior Maintaining them in perfect visibility Forming around them an apparatus of observation, registration, and recording Constituting on them a body of knowledge that is accumulated and centralized. Render individuals docile and useful

    4. Prison constituted outside legal apparatus throughout the social body [231] Procedures for Rendering individuals docile and useful Creates the delinquent Contrast with offender Note that this New Man, created through modes of punishment, was not an intentional creation; rather emerged through a convergence of forces.

    5. Models fore-shadowing the Modern Military camp Monastery Hospital School Workshop

    6. Transitional prisons late 18th/early 19th centuries Ghent, Belgium Gloucester, England

    7. Walnut Street Prison, Philadelphia

    8. New class power developing Colonized the legal institutions Procedures of domination characteristic of a particular type of power [231] Equal justice Autonomous legal machinery BUT asymmetrical disciplinary domination [232] Basis of transformation

    9. Procedures of domination characteristic of a particular type of power [231] Equal justice Autonomous legal machinery BUT asymmetrical disciplinary domination [232] Operation of power

    10. Why prison self-evident [232-3]

    11. Prison reform continuous If aim is to reform the criminal, then the penal machine must also be continually evaluated and improved [233-34] Various theories

    12. Complete and austere institutions Principles of imprisonment Isolation confront ones soul, submit Total? Walnut St. and its successor, Cherry Street Prisons, Philadelphia (Quaker) Awaken conscience within Monastic model? (Auburn, NY, model) [238] Isolation at night Disciplined communal activities during day Socialize the miscreant All aim to create hierarchical relation between individual convict and authority [239]

    13. Cherry Hill, replaced Walnut St. Prison 1829 The penitentiary in Philadelphia has been most strongly associated with the "Separate System" of imprisonment, in which prisoners are confined to individual cells and not allowed to congregate with each other. The latter system was dubbed the "Auburn System" after a prison in New York, although the Ossining, NY prison is better known: Sing-Sing. The Eastern State Penitentiary in Cherry Hill/Fairmount replaced the original Walnut St. prison (on Walnut & 6th) when it opened in 1829. Notice the radial spoke-like pattern with the central panoptic rotunda. Source: N.K. Teeters, The Prison at Philadelphia, Cherry Hill (1957). http://monarch.gsu.edu/jcrampton/foucault/foucault_philly.html

    14. Panopticon Jeremy Bentham "A building circular... The prisoners in their cells, occupying the circumferenceThe officers in the centre. By blinds and other contrivances, the Inspectors concealed... from the observation of the prisoners: hence the sentiment of a sort of omnipresenceThe whole circuit reviewable with little, or... without any, change of place. One station in the inspection part affording the most perfect view of every cell." Jeremy Bentham Proposal for a New and Less Expensive mode of Employing and Reforming Convicts (London, 1798) www.utilitarianism.com/panopticon.html

    15. "Morals reformed - health preserved - industry invigorated, instruction diffused - public burthens lightened - Economy seated, as it were, upon a rock - the gordian knot of the Poor-Laws are not cut, but untied - all by a simple idea in Architecture!" Jeremy Bentham The Panopticon Writings

    16. Auburn Prison, New York The shower replaced flogging as punishment at Auburn. Collective work in total silence Model of ideal behavior.

    17. Various models for correction [239, 248] Religious conversion Medical cure and normalization Economic efficient production -------- Politico-moral individual isolation & hierarchy Architectural and administrative best surveillance

    18. Principles of imprisonment Isolation [236] Work [240] Changes meaning from 18th century reformers From sign for public or useful reparation To producing efficient workers [242] machine men Proletarians Wages instrument of individual transformation, not remuneration [243]

    19. 1840s Conflicts between workers and prison work First major crisis of capitalism Conflict between work of free labor and prison labor Conditions of work Replacement of free labor Ask here for contemporary debates that echo this: Welfare reformAsk here for contemporary debates that echo this: Welfare reform

    20. Principles of imprisonment Isolation [236] Work [240] Instrument for modulation of the penalty [244] Not based on exchange value of the offense but Based on the time required to transform the inmate Arbitrariness of sentencing reinstituted, but now harnessed to reform of inmate by administrators [247] Discuss what exchange valueof the offense means not the crime but the person [p. 254]Discuss what exchange valueof the offense means not the crime but the person [p. 254]

    21. Dual project [250] Perfect surveillance Perfect observation Offender is transformed into delinquent [251] Joins earlier 18th century reformers narrative: Criminal as monster fallen out of the social pact and criminal as juridical subject rehabilitated by punishment Criminology appears as a science of the delinquent object of the law and object of a scientific technique are superimposed on one another [256]

    22. Foucaults aim This book is intended as a correlative history of the modern soul and of a new power to judge; a genealogy of the present scientifico-legal complex from which the power to punish derives it bases, justifications and rules, from which it extends its effects and by which it masks its exorbitant singularity. [23]