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Chapter 16: Social Behavior

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Chapter 16: Social Behavior. Social Psychology. the branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others. Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Others. Effects of physical appearance:

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social psychology
Social Psychology
  • the branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others.
person perception forming impressions of others
Person Perception:Forming Impressions of Others
  • Effects of physical appearance:
  • Good looking people are seen as being more sociable, friendly, poised, warm and well-adjusted.
  • Baby-faced (large eyes, smooth skin, rounded chin) seen as more trustworthy.
schemas stereotypes

Social Schemas: organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people.

Stereotypes: Widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group.

In group: the group one belongs to.

Out group:

We see the in-group as superior.

Schemas & Stereotypes

attribution processes explaining behavior
Attribution Processes: Explaining Behavior
  • Internal Attributions: due to personal dispositions, traits, abilities and feelings
  • External attributions: due to situational demands and environmental constraints.
attribution processes explaining behavior7
Attribution Processes: Explaining Behavior
  • Self-serving bias: tendency to attribute our successes to personal factors, and our failures to situational factors.
  • Fundamental attribution error: using internal attributions to explain other’s behavior.
  • Defensive attribution error: tendency to blame victims for their misfortune (so that we feel less likely to be victimized in the same way).
close relationships liking and loving
Close Relationships: Liking and Loving
  • Key factors in attraction
    • Physical attractiveness
    • Matching hypothesis
    • Similarity
    • Reciprocity
    • Romantic Ideals
close relationships liking and loving10
Close Relationships: Liking and Loving
  • Matching hypothesis: males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners
  • Reciprocity: we like people who show that they like us
close relationships liking and loving11
Close Relationships: Liking and Loving

Passionate love: complete absorption in another that includes sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion.

Companionate love: warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one’s own.

close relationships liking and loving12
Close Relationships: Liking and Loving
  • Intimacy: warmth, closeness, and sharing
  • Commitment: intent to maintain a relationship in spite of difficulties.
attitudes and attitude change
Attitudes and Attitude Change
  • 3 components
    • cognitive, affective, and behavioral
  • Factors in changing attitudes
    • source, message, and receiver
  • Theories of attitude change
    • Learning theory
    • Dissonance theory
    • Self-perception theory
    • Elaboration likelihood model
yielding to others conformity
Yielding to Others: Conformity
  • Conformity – Solomon Asch (1950s)
    • Classic experiment
      • Group size
      • Group unanimity
yielding to others obedience
Yielding to Others: Obedience
  • Obedience – Stanley Milgram (1960s)
    • Controversial landmark experiment
    • “I was just following orders”
      • presence of a dissenter
behavior in groups the influence of other people
Behavior in Groups:The Influence of Other People
  • The bystander effect - Darley and Latane (1968)
    • Diffusion of responsibility
  • Group productivity and social loafing
  • Decision making in groups
  • Polarization
  • Groupthink

Figure 16.23 Bias in the attributions used to explain success and failure by men and women