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Chapter 13 Java AWT – Part II (Optional). Lecture Slides to Accompany An Introduction to Computer Science Using Java (2nd Edition) by S.N. Kamin, D. Mickunas, E. Reingold. Chapter Preview. In this chapter we will: discuss the use of Java in animating World Wide Web applications

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chapter 13 java awt part ii optional

Chapter 13Java AWT – Part II(Optional)

Lecture Slides to Accompany

An Introduction to Computer Science Using Java (2nd Edition)

by

S.N. Kamin, D. Mickunas, E. Reingold

chapter preview
Chapter Preview

In this chapter we will:

  • discuss the use of Java in animating World Wide Web applications
  • show how to write Java applets
  • introduce Java graphical components (e.g. Textfields, Buttons, and Labels)
  • show how Java programs can be made to react to user actions on Java graphical components
  • show how Java applications can be run from inside web browsers
frames
Frames
  • A frame is a window with a title bar and a border
  • The Frame class is a subclass of Container class
  • Container class objects may have other components (e.g. Buttons) added to them using the add method
  • A typical Java GUI will create and display one or more frames
  • To make a frame visible the message setVisbible(true) must be sent to the frame
layout managers
Layout Managers
  • Governs how components are arranged inside a Container object
  • The Container method setLayout allows the programmer to specify which layout manager (e.g. FlowLayout) is desired for a particular container object
  • The size of a Container object should be set explicitly by the programmer as well
  • Can use pack() to set size to accommodate preferred sizes of components)
frame example
Frame Example

public class TwoButtons {

Frame f;

Button redButton, blueButton;

public TwoButttons() {

f = new Frame(“Two Buttons Frame”);

redButton = new Button(“Red”);

blueButton = new Button(“Blue”);

f.setLayout(new Flowlayout());

f.add(redButton);

f.add(blueButton);

f.pack();

f.setVisible(true);

}

}

uml notation
UML Notation
  • The filled diamond represents composition
  • This shows that the class TwoButtons contains a class Frame which contains a class Buttons
  • A good UML diagram only shows the classes and associations that are important to understanding the architecture
  • This UML diagram does not include super classes like Component or Container
using inheritance
Using Inheritance
  • It is possible to use inheritance to allow TwoButtons to become a frame in its own right
  • Note that the UML diagram will show TwoButtons as a subclass of Frame
  • You will need to use super()to set the frame title
frame inheritance example
Frame Inheritance Example

public class TwoButtons extends Frame {

Button redButton, blueButton;

public TwoButttons() {

super(“Two Buttons Frame”);

redButton = new Button(“Red”);

blueButton = new Button(“Blue”);

f.setLayout(new Flowlayout());

f.add(redButton);

f.add(blueButton);

f.pack();

f.setVisible(true);

}

}

other simple java components
Other Simple Java Components
  • Label
    • contains some text that can be set using a constructor or the method setLabel
  • TextField
    • a box into which the user can type text
    • text can be edited (backspace, delete, etc.)
    • text can be retrieved using getText()
    • text can be set using setText()
java awt event model
Java AWT Event Model

Including reactive program components involves:

  • Having the class header declare itself as implementing the ActionListener interface
  • Typically in the class constructor the class instance registers itself as being interested in listening for events from a newly created component
  • One method (e.g. actionPerformed) of the ActiveListener interface is defined
frame inheritance example13
Frame Inheritance Example

public class classname extends Frame implements ActionListener {

Button buttonname;

public classname() {

buttonname = new Button(“button label”);

add(buttonname);

buttonname.ActionListener(this);

}

public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {

… what to do when button is pushed …

}

}

uml notation for button program
UML Notation for Button Program
  • Abstract class indicated by italicizing the class name
  • Implements association (concrete class) indicated by line with a closed arrowhead
  • UML stereotype (constructors, accessor, interface implementation methods) indicated by enclosing a descriptive word inside guillements << >>
closing the window
Closing the Window
  • You must implement the WindowListener and its seven required methods

windowActivated, windowClosed, windowClosing, windowDeactivated, windowIconified, windowDeiconified, windowOpened

  • This is usually done in a programmer defined class like ClosableFrame and all classes needing these services would extend ClosableFrame
using conditionals with reactive components
Using Conditionals with Reactive Components

public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {

double fahr, cent;

// check for user input in tFahr TextField

if (e.getSource() == tFahr) {

fahr = new Double(tFahr.getText()),doubleValue();

cent = 5.0 * (fahr – 32.0) / 9.0;

tCent.setText(cent + “”); // update tCent TextField

}

else {

cent = new Double(tCent.getText()),doubleValue();

fahr = 9.0 * cent / 5.0 + 32.0;

tFahr.setText(fahr + “”);

}

checkboxes
Checkboxes
  • Used to allow user to select one or more items
  • Always has a label
  • Program often needs to react to the user selection(s)
  • Declaration example:

Checkbox powerBrakes = new Checkbox(“Power Brakes”);

Checkbox powerSteering = new Checkbox(“Power Steering”);

Checkbox ac = new Checkbox(“Air Conditioning”);

add(powerBrakes);

add(powerSteering);

add(ac);

programming checkboxes
Programming Checkboxes
  • Program is declared with implements ItemListener
  • Checkbox is registered by calling addItemListener
  • Event is handled using itemStateChanged argument type ItemEvent
  • The ItemEvent argument is used to tell which item triggered the event by calling getSource
radio buttons
Radio Buttons
  • A group of Checkboxes in which only one item can be selected at a time
  • Implemented using a Java CheckboxGroup
  • Items are declared initially as selected (true) or unselected (false)
  • Example:

CheckboxGroup gender;

Checkbox maleCheck =

new Checkbox(“Male”, gender, true);

Checkbox femaleCheck =

new Checkbox(“Female”, gender, true);

processing radio buttons
Processing Radio Buttons

public void compute() {

boolean female =

(gender.getSelectedCheckbox() == femaleCheck);

if ((bodyMassIndex > 27.8) ||

(female && (bodyMassIndex > 27.3))

lHigh.setText(“This is considered high”);

else

1High.setText(“this is not considered high”);

}

drawing in a frame
Drawing in a Frame
  • To draw in a Frame you need to the override the frame’s paint method:

public void paint(Graphics g)

  • Graphics objects are defined by the Java runtime system and are used for drawing operations
  • The Frame should be considered to be a grid with upper left coordinates (0,0) and positive coordinates (x,y) for the lower right
typical drawing code
Typical Drawing Code

public class MyDrawing extends ClosableFrame {

public MyDrawing() {

}

public void paint(Graphics g) {

g.drawLine(…);

g.drawImage(…);

}

}

repaint and update
Repaint and Update
  • The paint method requires an argument and actionPerformed does not know what to supply when called
  • The method repaint will clear the Frame and then call paint along with supplying the needed missing argument
  • You can prevent clearing the Frame when using repaint by overriding the method update before calling repaint
panel and canvas classes
Panel and Canvas Classes
  • The Panel class is container subclass that is used to reserve a rectangular portion of a Frame to place other components
  • The Canvas class is not a Container subclass, but does allow you to reserve a portion of a Frame to draw in
comparing layout managers
Comparing Layout Managers

FlowLayout

  • Default frame layout
  • Components are placed on new line only when needed

GridLayout

  • Frame is declared as a grid of fixed size (e.g. two rows and three columns)
  • Components are placed in the grid left to right and top to bottom

BorderLayout

  • Frame is divided into north, south, east, west, and center
  • Components are placed by the programmer in the desired location using the add method
typical gui frame
Typical GUI Frame

Panel p1 = new Panel();

p1.setLayout(new GridLayout(2,1));

p1.add(component);

p1.add(component);

Panel p2 = new Panel();

p2.setLayout(…);

p2.add(component);

setLayout(new BorderLayout());

add(“North”, p1);

add(“Center”, p2);

scrollbars
Scrollbars
  • The leftmost position of a horizontal scrollbar corresponds to some integer value and the rightmost position corresponds to a larger integer value
  • Scrollbars can be displayed vertically
  • User movement options
    • Clicking either end button causes bubble to move in unit increments
    • Clicking the are between bubble and end button causes movement in 10 unit increments
    • Clicking and dragging the bubble in the desired direction
hypertext markup language html skeleton
Hypertext Markup LanguageHTML – Skeleton

<HTML>

<HEAD>

<TITLE>Page Title</TITLE>

</HEAD>

<BODY>

Text and graphics to display in browser

</BODY>

</HTML>

html text displays
HTML Text Displays
  • Displays a centered heading in browser window

<CENTER>

<H1>Naploean I</H1>

</CENTER>

  • To identify text paragraphs to be displayed

<P>

In my spare time I like to do origami

and spend quiet evenings at home with my wife Josephine.

</P>

html using pictures and links
HTML Using Pictures and Links
  • Displays a centered picture

<CENTER>

<IMG SRC=“jojo.jpg”>

</CENTER>

  • To display a text link to another web page

<A HREF=“jojo.html”>Josephine</A>

  • To display a picture link to another web page

<A HREF=“jojo.html”><IMG SRC=“jojo.jpg”></A>

applet tag and html
Applet Tag and HTML
  • To include a Java applet as part of an HTML document

<APPLET CODE=“BodyMass.class” WIDTH=0 HEIGHT=0>

</APPLET>

  • Java applet shell for BodyMass.class

import java.applet.*;

public class BodyMass extends Applet {

public_html void start() {

new BodyMass();

}

}

transforming a java program into an applet
Transforming a Java Program into an Applet
  • Set the size you want the applet to be in the HTML file
  • Add the import statement to the Java code java.applet.*;
  • Change header from extends Frame to extends Applet
  • Change constructor heading to

public void start();

  • Eliminate any Java code that is meaningless in applets