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Can the oceans keep up with the Hunt???. Copyright 2007 Habitat Media . Open Ocean Aquaculture. OPEN OCEAN AQUACULTURE BY LAURA THURMAN JOSH TOBIAS AND NONE OTHER THAN WILL PITT. Laura Thurman Josh Tobias Will Pitt. Our Stance.

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can the oceans keep up with the hunt

Can the oceans keep up with the Hunt???

Copyright 2007 Habitat Media

open ocean aquaculture

Open Ocean Aquaculture

OPEN OCEAN AQUACULTURE

BY

LAURA THURMAN

JOSH TOBIAS

AND NONE OTHER THAN

WILL PITT

Laura Thurman

Josh Tobias

Will Pitt

our stance
Our Stance

It is clear that open ocean aquaculture can be an effective option to reduce the nation's dependence on seafood imports, provide jobs for economically depressed coastal communities, and meet the growing consumer demand for safe, healthy seafood.

what is open ocean aquaculture
What is Open Ocean Aquaculture?
  • Open Ocean Aquaculture is broadly defined as the rearing of marine organisms under controlled conditions in exposed, high-energy ocean environments beyond significant coastal influence.
  • Activities are located at a considerable distance from shore and are open to the natural ocean elements from all sides.
slide5

Facilities consist of systems (e.g., cages, net-pens, longline arrays) that can be free-floating, secured to a structure, moored to the ocean bottom, or towed by a vessel.

slide6

Cage mounted autonomous feeding systems have been developed that can operate both at the surface and submerged.

major challenges to open ocean aquaculture development
MAJOR CHALLENGESto open ocean aquaculture development
  • Choosing appropriate species and culture techniques
    • The following must be identified
      • Species selection
      • Egg/larval production
      • Nutritional/dietary requirements
species and culture techniques
species and culture techniques
  • Halibut, haddock, cod, flounder, blue mussels, mutton, snapper, cobia, yellowtail snapper, amberjack, corvina, mahimahi, red drum, tuna, striped bass, and other species.
  • Other research topics being investigated:
    • Hatchery culture technologies; designs for automated feeders; culture of new species; identification and control of diseases; development of cages and husbandry technology through rough waters; alternative food sources; nutrition requirements; development of environmental monitoring technology etc…
major challenges to open ocean aquaculture development11
MAJOR CHALLENGESto open ocean aquaculture development
  • Obtaining sufficient start-up capital investment
      • New and developmental technology, the risk of uncertainty associated with operating in exposed open ocean locations, lack of operational experience, and high capital start up costs make estimating profitablity and securing financing difficult for new OOA companies.
      • High maintenance costs b/c of offshore location
      • Proponents say that without some form of long-term leasing of water surface, water column, and seabed, OOA will have significant problems in securing capital from traditional funding sources, insurance,
          • (refer to National Offshore Aquaculture Act of 2007)
        • For development to occur one must accept that open ocean aquaculture is “big science” along the lines of atomic/nuclear physics research
      • Seeking and promoting partnerships with other industries
major challenges to open ocean aquaculture development12
MAJOR CHALLENGESto open ocean aquaculture development
  • Remaining competitive in an international market
      • Dependable air freight has allowed aquaculture operations to market globally
  • 81% of the seafood consumed in America is imported.
  • 40% of those imports are farmed.
      • Can the U.S OOA operations produce their product at prices competitive with foreign aquaculture?
  • U.S. marine aquaculture is a mere 1.5% of U.S. seafood supply.
major challenges to open ocean aquaculture development14
MAJOR CHALLENGESto open ocean aquaculture development
  • Designing and constructing facilities able to withstand the open ocean marine environment
        • Systems have been developed to withstand unpredictable wave conditions such as cages that do not deform under current and wave loads, submersible cages, and single –point moorings.
major challenges to open ocean aquaculture development16
MAJOR CHALLENGESto open ocean aquaculture development
  • Evaluating social and economic impacts
    • Little evidence provided of economic benefits
    • Could hurt the local fisherman
    • Alaska
    • Could lower prices
major challenges to open ocean aquaculture development17
MAJOR CHALLENGESto open ocean aquaculture development
  • Addressing potential environmental impacts
      • Similar but fewer problems than that of nearshore
      • Depends on technique, location, size/scale, species
why why why why why
Why why why why whY???
  • The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), an agency within the U.S. Department of Commerce, is working to enhance/increase domestic seafood supply to meet the growing demand for all seafood products. Currently, over 80% of the seafood Americans consume is imported, and at least half of those imports are farmed seafood. Additional U.S. aquaculture can help the nation reduce its $8 billion seafood trade deficit, provide additional jobs and revenue for coastal communities, and meet the growing consumer demand for safe, healthy seafood.
why why why why why21
Why why why why whY???
  • Right now, most U.S. marine aquaculture products come from shellfish, which are grown onshore or in coastal areas. However, new technology and equipment, and the promising results of open ocean aquaculture demonstration projects in state waters, are leading to opportunities for seafood farming further from the coast, in federal waters three to 200 miles off shore. The federal waters of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone cover 3.4 million square miles of ocean and hold promise for this new type of aquaculture.
slide22

Highlighted in blue in the map above, the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone ~ also known as federal waters ~ covers 3.4 million square miles of ocean. [U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy map]

why why why why why23
Why why why why whY???
  • While there are many potential benefits to offshore aquaculture, there are also barriers blocking the expansion of aquaculture into federal waters. Currently, there is no clear authority for the permitting of offshore aquaculture in federal waters. To address this challenge, the Administration will propose the National Offshore Aquaculture Act of 2007 early in the 110th Congress. If enacted, the Act will establish the legal framework regarding permits, enforcement, and monitoring of aquaculture in federal waters.
the national offshore aquaculture act of 2007
The National Offshore Aquaculture Act of 2007
  • Specifically, the bill will:
    • • Authorize the Secretary of Commerce to issue offshore aquaculture permits.
    • • Require the Secretary of Commerce to establish environmental requirements.
    • • Require the Secretary of Commerce to work with other federal agencies to develop and implement a streamlined and coordinated permitting process for offshore aquaculture.
    • • Exempt permitted offshore aquaculture from fishing regulations that restrict size, season and harvest methods.
    • • Authorize the establishment of a research and development program for marine aquaculture.
    • • Authorize funding to carry out the Act and provide for enforcement of the Act.
the national offshore aquaculture act of 200725
The National Offshore Aquaculture Act of 2007
  • The 2007 proposal includes requirements to ensure that offshore aquaculture proceeds in an environmentally responsible manner that is consistent with stated policy to protect wild stocks and the quality of marine ecosystems and is compatible with other uses of the marine environment.
  • the proposal will provide the necessary regulatory certainty to facilitate expansion of aquaculture in federal waters, where there is significant potential for development of the U.S. aquaculture industry.
responsible aquaculture
RESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE
  • the most immediate challenge is to establish clear rules to allow this type of aquaculture and, ultimately, allow the nation to take advantage of this new opportunity for seafood production in federal waters. At the same time, the federal government must ensure that human health, the marine environment, and wild stocks are protected.
slide28
Based on demand and population growth projections in the United States, the projected domestic seafood gap in 2025 is 2-4 million tons