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Building Energy Efficient Homes: New Construction and Rehab

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  1. Building Energy Efficient Homes:New Construction and Rehab HERS 86 (EnergyStar) minimum 30% Better Than the M.E.C. Other Considerations: Affordable; Durable; Healthy William Zoeller, R.A.

  2. Major Systems Affecting Building Energy Performance • Building Envelope • Air-tightness, Insulation levels • Water-management • Windows and Glazing Systems • Glazing SHGC • Overall “U” Value • Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning • Equipment sizing, efficiency and location • Duct tightness, distribution effectiveness, and location

  3. Major Systems Affecting Building Energy Performance • Domestic Hot Water • Generation • Distribution • Stand-by-losses • Appliances • Refrigerator, dishwasher, clothes washer/dryer • Lighting and miscellaneous

  4. Panelized Advanced Framing • Panelized Advanced Framing 2 x 6 Walls @24” OC • Low-e Windows • Foamed Stud Cavities with Blown in Cellulose (R-23) • Inside-The Envelope AHU • Foamed and Insulation Buried Ducts • Affordable and Starter Homes • HERS 89 Outlook ConstructionAtlanta, GA

  5. Panelized Advanced Framing • Reduces Framing Cost and increases Level of insulation • Reduces on-Site Labor and Construction Time • Requires Additional Planning, But Improves Systems Integration

  6. Insulation-Buried Ducts Computer Modeling of Heat Flow From Insulation Buried Duct Section Through Foamed Over Insulation Buried Duct

  7. Buried Duct Benefits • Improves air distribution efficiency • Provides additional air-sealing at joints and registers • Reduces Peak load allowing a smaller system to be used • Cost of foam can be offset by reduced cost of HVAC

  8. PANELIZED WALL AND ROOF SYSTEMS • 25 Home In-fill Development • Panelized SIP Construction • R-24 Walls • R-40 Roofs • 92 AFUE Furnaces • Mastic Sealed Ducts • 1.2-kW PV Solar Systems • Low-e Windows • EnergyStar Appliances • Compact Fluorescent Lighting • Controlled Ventilation Claretian AssociatesSouth Chicago, Il

  9. First SIP Project in Chicago • $155,000 cost for 1700 SF Home • 5% Increase in Cost of Standard Construction • 50% Increase in Energy Efficiency

  10. Cement Board Structural-Insulated-Panels Aluminum-Skinned SIP Roof Construction Structural-Steel Moment-Frame at Centerline Sold as Pre-Engineered Kit to Builder Standard and Custom Designs Available Low-Cost and Durable Panelized Wall and Roof Systems Homefront Homes

  11. Cement Board SIP Panels Panelized Wall Construction System: • Hardie®5/16” thick cement board laminated to both sides • of 4” thick polystyrene foam • Cuts construction time by up to 75% • High minimum R values with R-20 walls and R-30 roof • No wood used in the home construction to avoid moisture • and termite damage 3 days to complete the building shell

  12. Home Front Before Hurricane After Hurricane Home Front homes proved exceptionally resilient when Hurricane Charley struck in August, 2004 One mile away….

  13. Unvented Crawlspace • Improved Energy Efficiency • Improved Indoor-Air-Quality

  14. Low-e Glass Windows • Low-e glass blocks out most long-wave radiation (heat) while allowing most of the short-wave radiation (light) to enter.

  15. Typical Costs • Extra cost for 300 SF low-e coating on double glazing: $300. • Savings in downsizing AC by ½ ton: $275. • Net cost: $25.

  16. Additional Benefits of Low-e Windows • Reduced cooling load needs smaller HVAC system • Smaller HVAC system means lower air-flows, and simpler pressure balancing • By being more closely matched to both peak and non-peak cooling loads better dehumidification is achieved • (Improves IAQ and inhibits mold growth)

  17. HVAC Optimization • “Right-Sized” HVAC • Manual J with no oversize • Compact design • avoids ducts in outside walls • Less opportunity for leaks and losses • Less costly to install • Better able to achieve air-flows

  18. OPTIMIZED HVAC • Mercedes Homes Townhouses • Melbourne, Florida • Concrete and Panelized Construction • Low-e windows • Integrated HVAC • AHU in Conditioned-space • EnergyStar Qualified

  19. Down-Sized HVAC Single Zone 1.5 Ton Capacity Heatpumps Compact Distribution First and Second Floor Returns Fresh-Air Duct

  20. OPTIMIZED HVAC COMFORT TESTING

  21. ECO-Block Walls Fly-Ash Concrete Low-e Windows Integrated Compact HVAC SEER 17 A/C Tankless Water-Heater and Hydro-coil AHU HERS 95 Tankless Gas Water-Heater Madera I Model Home, Gainesville, Florida Takagi T-KD20

  22. Cost and Benefits • Saves Space: Much smaller than a storage tank • Saves Energy: Stand-by losses are eliminated. Operating efficiency improves by 30% to 40% • Saves Energy: For space heating, .84 AFUE is higher than standard furnace at .80 AFUE • Incremental cost increase is about $600. Very short initial pay-back, and immediate positive cash flow.

  23. Heat Pump Water Heater • Installed in a home in Melbourne, Florida • WatterSaver Integrated HPWH by ECR International, Inc. (product introduced Fall 2002) • Monitoring began in April 2002 • 3-person household (2 adults & toddler)

  24. Preliminary Findings • Reliable Performance • Homeowners very pleased • 62% kWh savings • $10/month savings at local electric rates of $.077/kWh

  25. Energy-Efficient Lighting, Appliances, and Controls Takoma Village, Washington, DC

  26. Takoma VillageWashington, D.C. • Other Sustainable Features • Energy Efficient Lighting • Low-VOC Paints and Finishes • Fiber-Cement Siding • Recycled-Content Carpets • Horizontal-Axis Clothes Washer • Tubular Skylights

  27. Putting It All Together Warwick Grove, Warwick, NY

  28. Putting It All Together • Advanced Framing • Unvented Crawlspace • Low-E Windows • Optimized HVAC • 92% Condensing Furnace • 13 SEER Air-Conditioning • Tankless Gas Water-Heater • EnergyStar Appliances • HERS 89 -90!