unit 3 industrialism and the race for empire n.
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UNIT 3 Industrialism and The Race for Empire

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  1. UNIT 3Industrialism and The Race for Empire 1700-1914

  2. Beginnings of Industrialization Section 1

  3. Industrial Revolution transformed how people worked • Machines replaced animal and human power to produce goods • Began in England and spread to the rest of Europe and the United States by the middle of the 1800’s • Early 1700’s farmers in England improved farming methods to grow larger amounts of crops • Farmers began to rotate crops to keep the soil productive • Livestock breeders improved their methods of breeding animals and their weight increased • More food led to better living conditions • Caused population of England to grow rapidly • Large landowners forced smaller landowners off of their land and many moved to the cities across England • Many who moved to cities became factory workers • Increased population in cities increased demand for food and manufactured goods Beginnings of Industrialization

  4. Why the Industrial Revolution began in England • Extensive natural resources • Coal • Iron ore • Rivers for transporting goods • Expanding economy • Developed banking system made it easy to borrow money to improve industry • Over seas colonies and trading partners supported by the most powerful navy in the world • Parliament passed laws to encourage and protect businesses • Had all of the factors of production (land, labor, capital or wealth) Beginnings of Industrialization

  5. Inventions helped fuel industrial expansion • Textile (cloth) industry was the first to be transformed • Inventions increased the work that could be done in one day • 1733 flying shuttle developed that made weaving cloth easier • 1764 Spinning wheel developed that increased production • 1769 Arkwright water frame developed that used water power to drive these two machines • Textile manufacturers began to house all parts of production in factories built near rivers and streams • Cotton for textile mills came from the American south • 1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin to speed up production of separating cotton fiber from seeds Beginnings of Industrialization

  6. Steam power was developed by James Watt as a source of power to run factories • Steam power was also used propel boats • 1807 American inventor Robert Fulton’s steamboat Claremont makes its first successful voyage • Faster water transportation cut the cost of transporting raw materials and finished goods • Early 1800’s Robert McAdam improves the way roads are built • Private investors build roads and charge fees to people using them Beginnings of Industrialization

  7. 1804 first steam powered rail engine • 1821 first rail line built in England • By middle of 1830’s railroads connected many parts of England • Locomotive had four major effects • Gave manufacturers a cheap way to transport goods • Created thousands of new jobs • Boosted agriculture and fishing industries, it made it easier to transport these products to markets • Encouraged people to take distant city jobs Beginnings of Industrialization

  8. Industrialization Section2

  9. Industrialization led to an increased standard of living, people had better clothes, better food and earned higher wages in factories than on farms. • Change to machine production caused human suffering when it first began • Rapid industrialization caused unhealthy living conditions, child labor abuse and led to class tension • After 1800 balance of population in Europe was moving to cities (urbanization) • 1800-1850 the number of cities with more than 100,000 people went from 22 to 47 • Most urban areas doubled in size Industrialization

  10. Factories and cities developed near coal and water resources • Cities had no plans to deal with rapid growth • Poor sanitation, no building codes, lack of education, police and fire protection were major problems in cities • Streets were unpaved and trash and animal waste piled up • Workers lived in dark, dirty houses • Sickness was widespread • The wealthy merchants and middle class moved out of the cities to the suburbs Industrialization

  11. To increase production and profit factory owners kept machines running as many hours as possible • Average worker worked 16 hours per day, 6 days a week • Work remained the same week after week • Factories were not well lit or clean and there was a high rate of accidents • There were no government programs to help people injured on the job • Women and children were the cheapest to employ and had some of the worst working conditions Industrialization

  12. Growing middle class • Industrial Revolution created enormous wealth • Factory owners, shippers, and merchants were part of a growing middle class • Middle class was made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people • Took political power from wealthy landowners and aristocrats • Looked down on by these groups, “business” was seen as vulgar • Middle class enjoyed a comfortable standard of living Industrialization

  13. The Working class • Laborers, factory workers saw little improvement in their standard of living and working conditions • Many saw their jobs disappear as machines took over for them • One group that resisted mechanization was the Luddites • These groups destroyed factory machines and organized worker riots because of poor living and working conditions Industrialization

  14. Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution • Created jobs for workers • Demand for engineers and managers increased • Created wealth for the nation • Created tax revenue that allowed cities and countries to improve urban areas • Allowed for technological progress and invention • Raised the standard of living, provided hope for improvement in peoples lives • Better food • Better educational opportunities • Created cheaper mass produced goods • Laborers eventually won better wages and working conditions after they formed labor unions Industrialization

  15. Industrialization Spreads Section 3