The Plan… • New material for today • The Crusades
The Crusades • The Crusades were wars in which the Christians of Europe fought against the Muslims for control of the Holy land. • This is the home of modern day Israel • Jesus lived and died there
The Holy Lands • The Holy Lands were filled with sacred places and pilgrimage sites • They were once under the power of the Christian Byzantine Empire, that was until the eleventh century when this area – also known as Palestine – came under control of the Seljuk Turks • These Turks were Muslims • The Crusades were a battle rooted in the deep religious feelings of the Medieval Christians in conjunction with prejudice against those of another religion • Also involved a lust for booty
The Church and it’s influence • The Crusades were yet another example of how much influence that the Church had over the people of the Middle Ages • Knights – much like the Muslims they fought against – looked on fighting in such a “holy war” as a way of guaranteeing themselves a place in heaven • Pope Urban II called for the first crusade in 1095, telling the Knights that their sins would be forgiven and they would find paradise if they were able to free the holy land.
The “People’s Crusade” • Prior to the first military crusade in 1095, there was a crusade to the Middle East to fight the Muslims, this crusade was undertaken by “ordinary people” • Thousands of men, women, and children walked across Europe in response to the Pope’s message • This group made their way across Europe, engaging in numerous massacres of Jews and fellow Christians • Their success was short lived, as a Turkish Army wiped them out in Asia minor
Bring on the Knights • With the arrival of armed knights, the Crusade movement had more success; the Knights Templar were examples of these fighters • The first Crusade of 1187 involving knights came with it a Christian Kingdom in the Middle East. This Kingdom lasted for about 100 years
The Muslims: More than just Warriors • Due to a unified resistance against the Crusaders, the Muslim people, lead by Sultan Saladin, were able to regain all of their lands • While unsuccessful, the Christians that returned to Europe did not come empty handed • The knowledge gained from the scholarly Muslims regarding medicine, astronomy, philosophy, mathematics, and literature was very beneficial to Europe • Sparked what was to become the Renaissance
More than Intellectual gains • Further to intellectual wealth Europeans gained many products from the Muslim world including silk, silkworms, spices, and new varieties of fruit • This created a new desire for foreign goods that would later lead to the European voyages of discovery, opening up the European standard of living