Psychological Disorders. Abnormal Behavior. History of Mental Disorders & Institutions. Originally called “lunatics”, it was believed to be related to a full moon. Possession Removal and Institutionalization Ice baths Vomiting and bleeding Chains Often resulted in death. Moral Management.
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Psychological Disorders Abnormal Behavior
History of Mental Disorders & Institutions • Originally called “lunatics”, it was believed to be related to a full moon. • Possession • Removal and Institutionalization • Ice baths • Vomiting and bleeding • Chains • Often resulted in death
Moral Management • Belief that the environment played a vital role in the treatment of the mentally ill • Design of the building: two wings branch out from a central building. Exit and entrance only from the center. Least disturbed patients placed closer to the center. • Work Programs and recreational activities were devised for patients • 1840’s- Dorothea Dix
Moral Management • 1800’s- belief that environment is important part of treatment • In shock therapy via insulin injections • Effect of the Civil War • Opium • Reverting back to the older methods due to overcrowding.
The Early Twentieth Century • The lobotomy introduced • Quick and very popular • “The” treatment until the 1950’s • “Euthanasia of the mind”
The 1960’s • Movement to protect the human right of mental patients • Community based • Reduction of hospitalization • Prevent psychological disorders instead of treatment only
Present Day • Deinstitutionalization- move patients from in patient institutions to community-based facilities with emphasis on out patient care • Drug therapies • Increase in homelessness (20-25% of homeless pop.) • Denial of services
Criteria of Abnormal Behavior • Deviance • Maladaptive Behavior • Personal Distress • ALL SUBJECTIVE!!!
Mental Disorder v. Insanity • Mental Disorder-- Interfere with a person’s well-being and ability to function for more than 6 months • Insanity--Not knowing right and wrong
Etiology & Prognosis • Etiology--Causation and developmental history of an illness • Prognosis--Probable course of the illness and outcomes expected
Methods to Diagnose Mental Disorders • Clinical Interviews • Neurological test • Personality tests • Projective tests (TAT and Rorschach)
Look for the following • Number of responses • Length of time to reply or refusal to answer. • Was shape of color included? • Seen as a whole or separate parts • What was seen
Results • Subject gave between 15-30 total responses to the 10 figures • Depressed people give FEWER answers • Reaction time took 20-30 minutes but schizophrenics took much less time and often refused to answer, gave most “original” ideas • Common responses were animals or insects
DSM History • Introduced by APA in 1952 • DSM I had only 106 disorders • DSM-II 1968 182 disorders • In the early 70’s, gay movement protested homosexuality should NOT be included in DSM III • DSM III 1980 265 disorders • DSM IV 1995 297 disorders • Pro and Cons of Diagnostic Labeling- Rosenhan’s 1973 Study “On Being Sane in Insane Places”
Levels of DSM • Axis 1: Nine Major Clinical Syndromes • Axis II: Personality Disorders • Axis III: General Medical Conditions • Axis IV: Psychological & Environmental problems • Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning Scale
Percentage of Mental Disorders • Substance abuse 27% • Anxiety 25% • Mood 20% • Schizophrenia .7%%