slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920

Loading in 2 Seconds...

  share
play fullscreen
1 / 75
ishmael-conrad

The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

142 Views
Download Presentation
The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS LABOR/WORKING CONDITIONS WOMEN CHILD LABOR RACE RELATIONS LIVING CONDITIONS

  2. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS • MASS PRODUCTION OF AUTOMOBILES • Assembly-line system • “I am going to democratize the automobile” – Henry Ford Situation

  3. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS 1907 – Ford lowered prices and sales went up 1908 – Introduced Model T “Tin Lizzie” - $850.00 stripped down 1913 – adopted meat packers’ techniques and created a moving assembly line Situation

  4. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS 1913 – sold 248,000 cars – produced 1 every 93 minutes 1925 – turned out a new car every 10 seconds http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pf8d4NE8XPw Situation

  5. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS Situation

  6. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS Situation

  7. Situation

  8. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS • 1904 – large corporations controlled 2/5 of the capital in the US = Oligopolies • i.e. 6 financial groups dominated Railroad Industry • 1909 – 1% of industry produced ½ of all manufactured goods • TRUSTS – These companies worked together to keep prices high. Situation

  9. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS DEBATE: Critics wanted to break the trusts up – others argued that large-scale business was a mark of the times TRUSTS Situation

  10. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS • Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle • Describes the filthy conditions in meatpacking houses • Got the attention of the public and the government • The Meat Inspection Act • The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 • FDA Civil Reformers

  11. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS • “TRUST BUSTER” – not entirely accurate • Distinguished between “good” and “bad” trusts • Promised to protect the “good” and control the “bad” Roosevelt

  12. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS • February 14, 1902 – brought suit against the Northern Securities Company for violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act • Company controlled the rail networks of Northern Pacific, the Great Northern and the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroads –JP Morgan and Rockefeller • 5-4 Supreme Court ruled to dissolve the Company. Roosevelt

  13. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS • 1902 – 1904 – Roosevelt moved against the beef trust, the American Tobacco Company, the Du Pont Corp, and Standard Oil Roosevelt

  14. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS • WAS HE REALLY AGAINST BIG BUSINESS?? • 1904 – during bid for re-election he asked for support from big business – including $150,000 from J.P. Morgan • 1907 –allowed Morgan’s US Steel to absorb the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company Roosevelt

  15. Roosevelt is portrayed as Jack the Giant Killer and the Giants are the Captains of Industry and Wall Street Jack the Giant Killer

  16. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS • Despite Roosevelt’s reputation as the “Trust Buster” more Trusts were “busted” by Taft • Man-Elkins Act of 1910 – placed telephone and telegraph companies under government control TAFT

  17. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS • “rule of reason” – allowed Supreme Court to determine whether a business exerted a “reasonable” restraint on trade • 1911 – sued US Steel for 1907 acquisition of Tennessee Coal and Iron Company TAFT

  18. Roosevelt's displeasure and Taft's disarray

  19. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS • Banking Reform – Federal Reserve Act • Gave President more control over the banks • Established Federal Trade Commission – to oversee business methods Wilson

  20. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 BIG BUSINESS • Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) • Prohibited unfair trade practices • Forbade pricing policies which created monopolies • Made corporate officers personally responsible for anti-trust violations Wilson

  21. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 LABOR/WORKING CONDITIONS • Mass Production’s goal = to make each product exactly the same • By 1920 – almost ½ of all industrial workers labored in factories which employed more than 250 people SITUATION

  22. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 LABOR/WORKING CONDITIONS • RESULTS: • Workers lost control of workplace • Conveyer belts were sped-up to heighten production SITUATION

  23. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 LABOR/WORKING CONDITIONS • FREDERICK WINSLOW TAYLOR • “Scientific” labor management • Train workers for particular tasks • Time and motion studies • Differential pay rates that rewarded those who worked fastest SITUATION

  24. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 LABOR/WORKING CONDITIONS • Jobs became monotonous and dangerous • Meat cutters sliced fingers and hands • 46 steel workers were killed in just one mill in 1906 SITUATION

  25. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 LABOR/WORKING CONDITIONS • MARCH 1911 – Triangle Shirtwaist Co. Fire • Seamstresses were trapped in the building because exit doors had been closed & locked by the company to prevent theft and to shut out union organizers SITUATION

  26. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 LABOR/WORKING CONDITIONS • Workers stampeded down the narrow staircases and the single fire escape • Others leaped from the building’s top floors • 146 people died SITUATION

  27. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ulaG9x4GpE workers jumped to their deaths

  28. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 LABOR/WORKING CONDITIONS • Samuel Gompers • American Federation of Labor [AFL] • Union for skilled workers • Industrial Workers of the World [IWW] • Union for unskilled workers and foreign born laborers Civilian Reformers

  29. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 LABOR/WORKING CONDITIONS • HENRY FORD • Introduced $5 day – doubling wage rate for common labor • Reduced working day from 9 to 8 hours • Personnel department to place workers Civilian Reformers

  30. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 LABOR/WORKING CONDITIONS • FORD’S POLICY PRODUCED RESULTS: • Turnover declined • Absenteeism declined • Output increased • IWW was pushed out Civilian Reformers

  31. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 LABOR/WORKING CONDITIONS • LOUIS BRANDEIS • Muller v. Oregon • The “Brandeis Brief” • Used medical evidence to support claims that poor working conditions led to unhealthy workers Civilian Reformers

  32. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 LABOR/WORKING CONDITIONS • ANTHRACITE COALMINERS’ SRIKE – PA • 140,000 miners walked off the job • Roosevelt ordered Army to prepare to seize the mines – leaked word of his order to Wall Street • Alarmed Morgan and the Union made a settlement Roosevelt

  33. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 LABOR/WORKING CONDITIONS • An independent commission appointed by Roosevelt created a deal • 10% wage increase • Cut in work hours • Roosevelt saw government as an honest impartial broker • “Square Deal” for both labor and capital Roosevelt

  34. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 LABOR/WORKING CONDITIONS • Backed laws to regulate safety in mines and Railroads • Mandated 8-hour work days for government employees TAFT

  35. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 LABOR/WORKING CONDITIONS • 1914 – Ludlow Colorado • State militia and mine guards fired machine guns into tent colony of coal strikers • Killed 26 men, women and children • Wilson sent federal troops to end the violence • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lrZeYODHmlA Wilson

  36. Ludlow, Colorado

  37. Ludlow - 1914 - Red Cross

  38. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 LABOR/WORKING CONDITIONS • Wilson signed Adamson Act – 1916 • Imposed an 8 hour work day on interstate Railroads Wilson

  39. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 WOMEN • 1900 – More than 5 million women work • More women than men graduated from high school – but most professions were closed to them • Women attended “new business schools – training in stenography, typing, & bookkeeping SITUATION

  40. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 WOMEN • 1920 – ¼ + of all employed women held clerical jobs – many others taught • Critics – women’s employment endangered the home • Threatened reproductive functions • Robbed them of their “special charm” SITUATION

  41. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 WOMEN • 1900 – 1920 – The Birth rate did continue to drop • 1916 – 1 in every 9 marriages ended in divorce, compared to 1 in 21 in 1880 SITUATION

  42. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 WOMEN • MARGARET SANGER • PIONEER IN BIRTH CONTROL – LEAD TO CREATION OF PLANNED PARENTHOOD • MARGARET DREIER • WOMEN’S TRADE UNION LEAGUE • 1920 – 19TH AMENDMENT TOOK EFFECT CIVILIAN REFORMERS

  43. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 WOMEN • Ida Tarbell • Editor in Chief – McClure’s Magazine • Muckraking magazine that examined and exposed the lives of the working class during the Progressive Era CIVIL REFORMERS

  44. WTUL

  45. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 WOMEN • At first he believed it was a state issue and refused to endorse woman suffrage • 1913 – 1st Mother’s Day • By 1916 – He came out in support of giving women the right to vote WILSON

  46. The Progressive Era 1900 - 1920 CHILD LABOR/EDUCATION • 1900 – 3 million + children worked • Nearly 20% of children between 5 and 15 held full or almost full time jobs • Thousands worked in the mines & southern cotton mills SITUATION

  47. Breaker boys