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The Progressive Era 1890-1920

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  1. The Progressive Era1890-1920 Mrs. Hauber Academic

  2. Origins of Reform • Industrialization Problems • Urbanization Problems • Corruption among Government Officials • Abuses of Big Businesses

  3. Who are the Progressives? • Emerging Middle Class • Believed in the idea of Progress—growth and advancement of the U.S. • Wanted Reforms that included: • Better working conditions • Better Pay • Less Corruption • More government involvement to end abuses

  4. Problems that were Tackled • Political Reform • Party bosses • Political machines • Women’s Suffrage • Living Conditions • Working Conditions • Breaking Up Big Trusts

  5. Muckrakers • Definition • Teddy Roosevelt • Famous Journalists: • Lincoln Steffens • Jacob Riis • Ida Tarbell

  6. Famous Novelists • Upton Sinclair—The Jungle • Frank Norris—The Octopus

  7. Societal Reforms • Social Gospel • Settlement Houses • Jane Adams—Hull House • Child Labor • Florence Kelley • 1938 • Education

  8. Protection for Industrial Workers • Poor ventilation, hazardous fumes, and unsafe machinery • 30,000 lives lost a year • Triangle Shirtwaist Fire • Laws were later passed • Shorter hours • Worker’s compensation laws

  9. Reforming the Government • City managers curbed the power of party bosses • Government purchase of utilities • Election Rules • Direct primary—citizens elect the nominees • Referendum—public votes on a law • Recall—public can reject laws • 17th Amendment—direct election of senators

  10. Progressive Governors • Robert La Follette (Battling Bob) • Wisconsin was called “laboratory for democracy” • Improved education • Lowered fees for railroads • Made factories safer

  11. Section 2: Women Make Progress • Goals: • Limit number of hours worked • Fair prices for goods • Temperance Movement • Education • Voting Rights

  12. Muller vs. Oregon—ruled that long hours for women hurt the family This later hurt women because it became a justification for paying women less Limiting Hours for Women

  13. Safety of Goods • Florence Kelly—found the NCL (National Consumer’s League) which demanded labels to ensure quality and safety of products

  14. WCTU—Women’s Christian Temperance Movement—wanted to outlaw alcohol 18th Amendment Margaret Sanger—opened birth control clinics Ida Wells—African American who wanted to help educate young black women Family Life

  15. Right to Vote • Suffrage—right to vote • 1860s—Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton • Failed at the federal level • However, got 4 states to allow women to vote

  16. New Suffragists • 1890—Carrie Chapman Catt-started the NAWSA (National American Women’s Association) • Lobbied Congress for a constitutional amendment • Alice Paul—radical that used marches, protests, and hunger strikes • 19th Amendment: 1920—gave women the right to vote

  17. Section 3: The Struggle Against Discrimination • Progressive era left out African Americans • African American’s demand Reform • Booker T. Washington • WEB DuBois • Niagara Movement • NAACP

  18. Reducing Prejudice • Anti-Defamation League—to defend Jews against verbal and physical attacks • Mutualists—groups that gave loans to Mexican Americans • Society of American Indians—preservation of culture and resistance to federal Native American policies

  19. Section 4: Roosevelt • Death of McKinley • Characteristics of Roosevelt • Trustbusting • Conservation • Taft • Election of 1912

  20. In the 1900 election, McKinley won again. Assassinated early in his presidency at the Pan-American Conference Leon Czolgosz—anarchist who murdered McKinley TR becomes President Death of McKinley

  21. Dynamic personality; lots of energy Well-to-do family Poor health Became blind in one eye from boxing Became champion of the everyday man despite his wealth Square Deal Known as the “trustbuster” Characteristics of Roosevelt

  22. Trustbuster • Coal Mine Strike • ICC • Sherman Anti-Trust Act • Northern Securities Company (most famous case) • Broke up four railroads • Difference Between a good trust and a bad trust

  23. Food and Drug Industries • The Jungle • Meat Inspection Act • Pure Food and Drug Act • Banned spoiled food from crossing state lines • Banned mislabeling of food and drugs • FDA still enforces laws

  24. Conservation • Preservation of National Forests • Gifford Pinchot • National parks • Newlands Reclamation Act—built and managed dams

  25. Howard Taft • Promised to keep up with the Progressive Movement • Disappointed reformers • Payne Aldrich Tariff • Mann-Elkins Act • Ballinger-Pinchot Affair

  26. Election of 1912 • TR runs again under a new party called “Progressive Party” • Republicans Chose Taft again • Democrats chose Wilson • Wilson wins because the Republican vote was split.

  27. Section 5: Wilson’s New Freedom • New Freedom—Wilson’s program that incorporated many progressive ideas. • Underwood Simmons Bill—gives the progressives a real tariff reform. • 16th Amendment—graduated income tax

  28. Economy • Run on banks • Federal Reserve Act • Federal Trade Commission • Clayton Anti-trust Act—actually spelled out what companies could not do.

  29. Legacy of Progressivism • Expanded the voter’s influence • Protected banks • Expanded the role of government