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SESSION SEVEN. Motivation and Reward. Some brain based researchers like Jensen feel that we are un intentionally demotivating students and feel that teachers should not ask, “What do I need to do to motivate my students?” But “What am I doing to demotivate them?”. Motivation and Reward.

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motivation and reward
Motivation and Reward
  • Some brain based researchers like Jensen feel that we are un intentionally demotivating students and feel that teachers should not ask,
    • “What do I need to do to motivate my students?”
    • But
    • “What am I doing to demotivate them?”
motivation and reward1
Motivation and Reward
  • Some of your view of motivation depends on your view of yourself.
  • The brain naturally loves to learn,
  • If you view yourself as a catalyst for learning, one that lights a fire for learners,
    • Or
    • Do you see yourself as someone that just delivers information
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Motivation and Reward
  • Under normal circumstances, healthy brains make good choices and are easy to motivate ( they do it naturally)
  • One example of an unhealthy brain is “learned Helplessness.”
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Motivation and Reward
  • Learned Helplessness,
    • The children are not hostile, they believe that there is no cause and effect relationship between what they do and success in school of learning
    • In other words, hard work, studying, listening to the teacher- it does not make any difference.. They will still fail
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Motivation and Reward
  • Symptoms of learned helplessness
    • Not caring what happens
    • Giving up before starting, or sabotaging positive outcomes
    • Motivational and emotional deficits; depression, anxiety
    • Not acting on on a request or not following directions
    • Cognitive impairment
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Motivation and Reward
  • Symptoms of learned helplessness (Cont.)
    • Belief that outcome of an event is independent of input
    • Passivity instead of activity
    • Self imposed limitations that exacerbate passivity
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Motivation and Reward
  • Causes of learned Helplessness
    • Continued exposure to high stress. It is most likely going to happen when one feels out of control and with no influence
    • Sometimes in a culture when people believe in “it is God's will”, this is different than believing God gave you power to choose your destiny
    • It can be learned in a specific context, like Math class ( and good in other subjects)
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Motivation and Reward
  • Causes of learned Helplessness ( continued)
    • It can come about from observation of others, who encounter uncontrollable events, example for viewing global disasters
    • It can be strengthen by good intended people like parents who do their children’s homework for them or when teachers complete a task when students ask for help.
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Motivation and Reward
  • Between 5 to 25% of children have learned helplessness
  • The brain itself looks different than a normal brain
    • it has decreased amounts of norepinephrine- and important compound that contributes to brain arousal
    • Lower amounts of neurotransmitters
    • Links to anxiety
    • Decreased amounts of serotonin and dopamine the feel good neurotransmitter
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Motivation and Reward
  • The brain itself looks different than a normal brain
    • Increased activation in the amygdala- the structure that is involved in intense emotions
    • Increases in both the autonomic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system-both of which are involved in stimulation of stress related hormones cortisol
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Motivation and Reward
  • About 2/3 of students are candidates for learned helplessness
  • There is a greater susceptibility of students who are aggressive or are dominant in a group. Isn’t this opposite of what you would think?
  • The fact is that those that are the most social, outgoing, assertive, strong and in control are the most likely to be victims of learned helplessness.
    • WHY do you think??????
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Motivation and Reward
  • Learned helplessness is a serious and chronic situation
  • It is not something that can be cured with just a few smiles and kindness
  • Teaches that have students with learned helplessness have a tough time a head of them
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Motivation and Reward
  • How to teach Learned Optimism
    • Extending positive emotional states and redirection negative states in class
    • Engaging in community service
    • Taking an activist role( changing community or school policies)
    • Planning classroom activities with some choice involved ( field trips, teamwork)
    • Enhancing personal skills ( CPR, Martial arts academic competitions)
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Motivation and Reward
  • How to teach Learned Optimism
    • Engaging in physical immersion events (i.e., Outward-bound, camping)
    • Taking part in active hobbies ( e.g. caring for animals, skating, sports)
    • Making family contributions (e.g.. Meals cleanup, yard work car work)
    • Enjoying sports theater, and music programs
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Motivation and Reward
  • Giving learners more control over their environment is the first step toward boosting confidence
  • According to Glasser (states) that confidence increases when a participant feels control over a situation whether the control is real or just perceived
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Motivation and Reward
  • How can you give students a sense of control
  • Give options to pick from approved topics for a projects
  • Do they have the right to move around the room?
  • Do they have any control over heat, lights, volume
  • What about breaks
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Motivation and Reward
  • What about rewards, are they good or bad?
  • Can you give too much praise?
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Motivation and Reward
  • (Kohn 1993) Found that children can become negatively dependent on praise, just as they can on any other external reward.
  • This dependency, can lead to lower self confidence, loss of intrinsic joy in the learning process and decreased self-esteem.
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Motivation and Reward
  • How about this??
    • Kohn also found that student that received Heavy praise can be Detrimental to learning??
    • The research found that subject that were given praise right before a skills test, consistently performed worse that those that did not receive praise
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Motivation and Reward
  • Here are some suggested tactics for the use of praise
    • Frequent is better than infrequent
    • Both positive and negative can be effective
    • Task oriented (not personal) is more effective
    • Localized negative ( “put the A function on the left side of the equation, not one the right) is most effective
    • Global negative is least effective ( You’re not trying)
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Motivation and Reward
  • Here are some suggested tactics for the use of praise ( continued)
    • Positive falls in the middle (Great Job)
    • Personal positive specific is effective ( your choice of descriptive words was highly effective in establishing an emotional tome)
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Motivation and Reward
  • One unique way of looking at praise is that it is a judgment that you are making. ( although a positive judgment
  • Jensen suggest that teachers should decrease praise and increase peer feedback and support which is more motivating
  • Ask learners what their assessments I of their work
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Motivation and Reward
  • Everyone has two different sources of motivation- intrinsic and extrinsic
  • Intrinsic is ideal
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Motivation and Reward
  • What do you think about this theory
    • Everyone is born with intrinsic motivation until a brain antagonistic environment has been established
    • Control ( teacher) creates a resentment which undermines natural curiosity and intrinsic motivation
    • Teachers should create environments in which learning is as natural as breathing.
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Motivation and Reward
  • Students have a built in motivation mechanism that does not require a teacher’s input or manipulation to work
  • The unmotivated learner is myth. The root problem is not so much the learner as the conditions of learning that are less ideal for school contexts.
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Motivation and Reward
  • Think about the next time you call someone an underachiever
    • A great number of children have been labeled underachievers, when you consider what some of these have had to overcome consider how unsupported they have been, underachiever may not be the best term.
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Motivation and Reward
  • The following techniques are considered demotivating
    • Coercion, control, and manipulation
    • Weak, critical, or negatively competitive relationships
    • Infrequent or vague feedback
    • Racism, sexism, or prejudice of any kind,
    • Outcome-based education ( unless student generated)
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Motivation and Reward
  • A great number of children have been labeled underachievers,
    • inconsistent policies and rules
    • Top-down management and policy making
    • Repetitive and rote learning
    • Inappropriate or limited learning styles
    • Sarcasm, put-downs, and criticism
    • Perception of irrelevant content
    • Boring , single medium presentation
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Motivation and Reward
  • A great number of children have been labeled underachievers,
    • Reward systems of any kind
    • Teaching in just one or two multiple intelligences
    • Systems that limit achievement of personal goals
    • Responsibility without authority
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Motivation and Reward
motivation and reward35
Motivation and Reward
  • How would you define the difference these three items:
    • Acknowledgement
    • Celebration
    • Rewards
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Motivation and Reward
  • Acknowledgement- if the act or item has only predictable but has no market value ( e.g.. smile, hug, compliment, random gift, token, awards assembly, public approval),
  • Celebrations- If it has market value, but absolutely no predictability ( e.g.- spontaneous party, Pizza, cookies, gift certificate, small gifts, trips tickets)
  • Reward- predictable-has value- if a students knows that by behaving well they might get a prize
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Motivation and Reward
  • Some problems with rewards
    • Each person’s brain has developed its own rewards system, what is rewarding to one person is not to another.
    • The reward system habituates, what initially was a reward, soon is not enough and the ante must be increased
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Motivation and Reward
  • Creativity is linked to intrinsic motivation since it gives the brain greater freedom of intellectual expression, which in turn seems to inspire even more creativity. A reward system prevents the establishment of intrinsic motivation because there’s rarely and incentive to be creative.
motivation and reward39
Motivation and Reward
  • Jensen feels that incentives / rewards like the reading ones with Pizza hut is a form of bribery.
motivation and reward40
Motivation and Reward
  • Strategies for eliciting Intrinsic Motivation (Continued)
    • Meet learners needs and goals- If students feel that they need what you have, they will be motivated.
    • Provide a sense of Control- Control and choice allow learners to express themselves and feel valued.
    • Encourage and provide for positive social bonding-encourage teamwork, collaboration and group activities
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Motivation and Reward
  • Strategies for eliciting Intrinsic Motivation (Continued)
    • Support a sense of curiosity- look at rag magazines, about Elvis and aliens etc..
    • Encourage strong Emotions- We are driven to act on our emotions because they are compelling decisions makers
    • Encourage adequate nutrition-
    • Incorporate multiple intelligences- draw learners in through their strengths
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Motivation and Reward
  • Strategies for eliciting Intrinsic Motivation (Continued)
    • Share success stories- tell inspiring stories about other learners who have surmounted obstacles
    • Provide acknowledgements
    • Increase frequency of feedback- make it your part time job
    • Manage Physiological states- learn to read and manage states- there is no such thing as unmotivated learners just unmotivated states
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Motivation and Reward
  • Strategies for eliciting Intrinsic Motivation (Continued)
    • Provide hope and success- learners need to believe that it is possible for them to succeed.
    • Model the joy of learning- the more you are excited about learning the ore the students will motivated.
    • Mark success and achievements with celebrations
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Motivation and Reward
  • Strategies for eliciting Intrinsic Motivation (Continued)
    • Maintain a physically and emotionally safe learning environment
    • Incorporate a learners’ individual learning style
    • Instill positive beliefs about capability and context- tell them you know that you believe that they can meet the challenge of and accomplish their goals
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Motivation and Reward
  • Jensen believes that the more demotivating an environment is the more learners look for rewards