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  1. E-government

  2. What is E-government ? • E-government is a continuous optimization of service delivery and governance by transforming internal and external relationships through technology, internet and new media • external relationships • government <-> citizen • government <-> business • internal relationships • government <-> government • government <-> employees • all relationships • are bidirectional • can be within a country or border-crossing

  3. Government • not monolithic • EU • in every country • federal level • regions • communities • provinces • municipalities • parapublic institutions • private instutions participating in delivery of public services • … • integrated E-government is based upon common strategy, multilateral agreements and interoperability • E-government contains the opportunity to realize one virtual electronic government with full respect for every specific competence

  4. Advantages • efficiency gains • in terms of costs: same services at lower total costs, e.g. • unique information collection using co-ordinated notions and administrative instructions • less re-encoding of information by electronic information exchange • less contacts • functional task sharing concerning information management, information validation and application development (distributed information systems) • in terms of quantity: more services at same total cost, e.g. • all services are available at any time, from anywhere and from any device • integrated service delivery • in terms of speed: same services at same total cost in less time • reduction of waiting and travel time • direct interaction with competent governmental institution • real time feedback for the user

  5. Advantages • effectiveness gains • in terms of quality: same services at same total cost in same time, but to a higher quality standard, e.g. • more corrected service delivery • personalized and participative service delivery • more transparant and comprehensive service delivery • more secure service delivery • possibility of quality control on service delivery process by customer • in terms of type of services: new types of services, e.g. • push system: automatic granting of or information about services • active search of non-take-up using datawarehousing techniques • controlled management of own personal information • personalized simulation environments

  6. E-government: a structural reform process • ICT is only a means by which a result may be obtained • E-government requires • considering information as a strategic resource for all government activity • change of basic mindset: from government centric to customer centric • re-engineering of processes within each government institution, each government level and across government levels • clear definition of mission and core tasks of every governmental institution

  7. E-government: a structural reform process • E-government requires • co-operation between governmental institutions: one virtual electronic government, with respect for mission and core tasks of each governmental institution and government level • co-operation between government and private sector • interoperability framework: ICT, unique identification keys, harmonized concepts • common security framework • adequate legal environment elaborated at the correct level • implementation with a decentralized approach, but with co-ordinated planning and program management (think global, act local) • adequate measures to prevent a digital divide

  8. Information as resource: implications • information modelling • information is being modelled in such a way that the model fits in as close as possible with the real world • definition of information elements • definition of attributes of information elements • definition of relations between information elements • information modelling takes into account as much as possible the expectable use cases of the information • the information model can be flexibly extended or adapted when the real world or the use cases of the information change

  9. Information as resource: implications • unique collection and re-use of information • information is only collected for well-defined purposes and in a proportional way to these purposes • all information is collected once, as close to the authentic source as possible • information is collected via a supplier-chosen channel, but preferably in an electronic way, using uniform basic services (single sign on, arrival receipt of a file, notification for each message, …) • information is collected according to the information model and on the base of uniform administrative instructions

  10. Information as resource: implications • unique collection and re-use of information • with the possibility of quality control by the supplier before the transmission of the information • the collected information is validated once according to an established task sharing, by the most entitled institution or by the institution which has the greatest interest in a correct validation • and then shared and re-used by authorized users

  11. Information as resource: implications • management of information • information in all forms (e.g. voice, print, electronic or image) is managed efficiently through its life cycle • a functional task sharing is established indicating which institution stores which information in an authentic way, manages the information and keeps it at the disposal of the authorized users • information is stored according to the information model • information can be flexibly assembled according to ever changing legal notions • all information is subject to the application of agreed measures to ensure integrity and consistency

  12. Information as resource: implications • management of information • every institution has to report probable improprieties of information to the institution that is designated to validate the information • every institution that has to validate information according to the agreed task sharing, has to examine the reported probable improprieties, to correct them when necessary and to communicate the correct information to every known interested institution • information will be retained and managed as long as there exists a business need, a legislative or policy requirement, or, preferably anonimized or encoded, when it has historical or archival importance

  13. Information as resource: implications • electronic exchange of information • once collected and validated, information is stored, managed and exchanged electronically to avoid transcribing and re-entering it manually • electronic information exchange can be initiated by • the institution that disposes of information • the institution that needs information • the institution that manages the interoperability framework • electronic information exchanges take place on the base of a functional and technical interoperabilty framework that evolves permanently but gradually according to open market standards, and is independent from the methods of information exchange

  14. Information as resource: implications • electronic exchange of information • available information is used for the automatic granting of benefits, for prefilling when collecting information and for information delivery to the concerned persons

  15. Information as resource: implications • protection of information • security, integrity and confidentiality of government information will be ensured by integrating ICT measures with structural, organizational, physical, personnel screening and other security measures according to agreed policies • personal information is only used for purposes compatible with the purposes of the collection of the information • personal information is only accessible to authorized institutions and users according to business needs, legislative or policy requirement • the access authorisation to personal information is granted by an independent institution, after having checked whether the access conditions are met • the access authorizations are public

  16. Information as resource: implications • protection of information • every concrete electronic exchange of personal information is preventively checked on compliance with the existing access authorisations by an independent institution managing the interoperability framework • every concrete electronic exchange of personal information is logged, to be able to trace possible abuse afterwards • every time information is used to take a decision, the used information is communicated to the concerned person together with the decision • every person has right to access and correct his own personal data

  17. Customer centric • unique declaration of every event during the life cycle/business episode of a customer and automatic granting of all related services, e.g.

  18. Customer centric • delivery of services that cannot be granted automatically to a customer • in an integrated way • information • interaction • transaction • re-using all available information • harmonized concepts • back-office integration • prefilled information

  19. Customer centric • delivery of services that cannot be granted automatically to a customer (ctd) • in a personalized way • look & feel and interface • content • only relevant information and transactions • personalized support • contextual help • own language • adapted vocabulary • on-line simulations • or at least based on the way of thinking of the customer group • life events (birth, marriage, etc.) or business episodes (starting a company, recruiting personnel, etc.) • life styles (sport, culture, etc.) • life status (unemployed, retired, etc.) or business sectors • specific target groups

  20. Customer centric • declaration of events and service delivery via an access method chosen by the customer • application to application • various end-user devices • PC, Mobile, PDA, digital TV, kiosks, … • file management • use of integrated customer relation management tools • service delivery in principle free of charge

  21. Cooperation at government levels • in Belgium, a co-operation agreement has been signed between federal government, regions and communities • coordinated offer of e-services to citizens/companies • guarantee that a citizen/company can use the same tools • terminal • software • electronic signature • guarantee of a unique data collection from the citizen/company • with respect for the partition of competences between government levels

  22. Co-operation agreement between government levels • co-ordinated, customer oriented service delivery • agreements have to be made on common standards • mutual tuning of portals, middleware, websites and back offices • use of common identification keys and electronic signature • mutual tuning of business processes when necessary • gradual mutual task-sharing on data storage in authentic form • common policy on SLA’s and security

  23. Co-operation government and private sector • private companies as service providers (sharing of investments), e.g. • network and security management • co-sourcing in BPR and development/maintenance/housing of ICT building blocks, e.g. • certification authorities • portals • private companies as partners • integrated work flow with their own information systems, e.g. • e-procurement • tax declaration • social security declarations

  24. Interoperability framework • goal: to guarantee the ability of government organizations and customers to share information and integrate information and business processes by use of • interoperable ICT • common identification keys/sets for every entity • harmonized concepts and data modelling

  25. Common identification keys • at least common identification keys and identification sets for every entity • person • company • patch of ground • between nations • unique schemes • conversion tables • regulation of interconnection of information based on unique identification keys

  26. Common identification keys • characterictics • unicity • one entity – one identification key • same identification key is not assigned to several entities • exhaustivity • every entity to be identified has an identification key • stability through time • identification key doesn’t contain variable characterics of the identified entity • identification key doesn’t contain references to the identification key or characteristics of other entities • identification key doesn’t change when a quality or characteristic of the identified entity changes

  27. Harmonized concepts and data model • standard elements • with well defined characteristics • used within all services • OO-oriented, e.g. inheritance in a multilingual environment • version management in an ever changing environment • define once, use many (different presentations) • workflow for validation of standard elements and characteristics • multi criteria search • by element • by scheme • by version • …

  28. Common security framework • issues • confidentiality • integrity • availability • authentication • autorisation • non-repudiation • audit

  29. Common security framework • specific points of interest • risk awareness based on risk analysis • security policies • structural and organisational aspects • encryption standards • interoperability of • PKI • electronic certificates • procedures (registration authority, certification authority) • difference between identification certificates and attribute certificates • attributes, optional fields • revocation lists • directories • application security

  30. Changes of the legal environment • organization of integrated data management and electronic service delivery: legal base for Royal Decree exists • functional task sharing on information management • obligation to respect unique data collection from the customer • obligation to exchange information in an electronic way • permission or obligation to use unique identification keys • harmonization of basic concepts

  31. Changes of legal environment • ICT-law • data protection • public access to information • electronic signature • probative value • no overregulation • only basic principles • technology-neutral, but not technology unaware

  32. Some interesting Belgian projects • social security sector • network of service integrators • integration of portal sites • electronic identity card

  33. Reference directory • serves as a base for organization of information flows • structure • directory of persons: what persons in what capacities have personal files in what social security institutions for what periods • data availability table: what data are available in what social security institutions for what types of files • access authorization table: what data may be transmitted to what institutions for what types of files • functions • routing of information • preventive access control • automatic communication of changes to information

  34. Measurement at Institution level • central data storage ? • independent Control Committee • preventive control on legitimacy of data exchange by Crossroads Bank according to authorizations of the independent Control Committee • information security department in each social security institution • specialized information security service providers • working party on information security

  35. Information security department • in each social security institution • composition • information security officer • one or more assistants • control on independence and permanent education of the information security officers is performed by the Control Committee • the Control Committee can allow to commit the task of the information security department to a recognized specialized information security service provider

  36. information security department recommends promotes documents controls reports directly to the general management formulates the blueprint of the security plan elaborates the annual security report general management takes the decision is finally responsible gives motivated feedback approves the security plan supplies the resources IS security department: tasks-Management

  37. Contents of the security report • general overview of the security situation • overview of the activities • recommendations and their effects • control • campaigns in order to promote information security • overview of the external recommendations and their effects • overview of the received trainings

  38. Specialized information security service providers • to be recognized by the Government • recognition conditions • non-profit association • having information security in social security as the one and only activity • respecting the tariff principles determined by the Government • control on independence is performed by the Control Committee

  39. Specialized information security service providers • tasks • keeping information security specialists at the disposal of the associated institutions • recommending • organizing information security trainings • supporting campaigns promoting information security • external auditing on request of the institution or the Control Committee • each institution can only associate with one specialised information security service provider

  40. Working party on information security • composition • information security officers of all institutions • task • coordination • communication • proposal of minimal security conditions • check list • recommendations to the Control Committee

  41. Organizational & technical measures • security policies • classification of information • security requirements towards the personnel • physical protection • management of communication and service processes • processing of personal data • logical access control • development and maintenance of systems • continuity management • internal and external control • communication to the public of the policy concerning security and the protection of privacy

  42. Information servers • information servers • directory of persons of the Crossroads Bank • National Register • Crossroads Bank Registers • work force register • wages and working time database (LATG) of the ONSS • employers directory (WGR) of the ONSS • database of contribution certificates • SIS-card and professional card registers • services offered • interactive consultation • batch consultation • automatic communication of updates

  43. National Register - Model National Register Municipalities

  44. Preprocessed messages • preprocessed messages • beginning/end of labour contract, beginning/end of self-employed activity • contribution certificates medical care (employees, self-employed, beneficiaries of social security allowances) • unemployment benefits – career break • allowances for incapacity for work (health care, accidents at work, occupational disease) • young unemployed • allowances to the handicapped • guaranteed income – social support • people suffering from long-term illness • social exemption • fiscal exemption • derived rights (e.g. tax reduction/exemption, free public transport, ...) • special contribution for social security • solidarity contribution on old age pensions • migrant workers • …

  45. Preprocessed messages • services offered: • batch consultation • automatic communication of messages

  46. Employees Employer KSZ-BCSS Sickness funds Control ONSS INAMI EX- health care sector -

  47. Derived rights in tax affairs • a number of people are entitled to an increased refund of the costs for medical care • moreover, a number of municipalities and provinces grant these persons reductions or even exemptions of the taxes

  48. Derived rights in tax affairs - past situation Sickness fund

  49. Derived rights in tax affairs - present situation CBSS sickness funds network

  50. CBSS Some figures • 339.137.455 exchanged messages in 2003 • 15,1 million different persons known in directory of persons • on an average, every person is known in 6,6 sectors • response time on-line messages question question answer answer 96,1 % in < 1 sec 99,8 % in < 2 sec 99,2 % in < 4 sec