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Figure 6-5 (continued fasting). Energy Balance and Weight Management. ENERGY IN Regulation of food intake: Hunger Satiation and satiety Appetite. ENERGY OUT. Energy expenditure at rest:

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energy balance and weight management
Energy Balance and Weight Management

ENERGY IN

  • Regulation of food intake:
  • Hunger
  • Satiation and satiety
  • Appetite
energy out
ENERGY OUT
  • Energy expenditure at rest:
  • BMR - basal metabolic rate: rate of energy expended at rest (kcal/hr or kcal/day), also called RMR (resting metabolic rate).
  • Factors that affect BMR (page 257)
energy out1
ENERGY OUT
  • Energy expenditure for physical activity:
  • Depends on the activity duration, type, and intensity (page 255)
  • Also affected by body size and fitness level
energy out2
ENERGY OUT
  • NEAT is the energy associated with unintentional activities like fidgeting, maintenance of posture, or spontaneous muscle contraction
energy out3
ENERGY OUT
  • Energy expenditure to process food:
  • Thermic effect of food (TEF) – the energy used to digest, absorb, and metabolize energy-yielding food
  • TEF is lower for fat than for carbohydrate and protein
  • TEF peaks one hour after eating, and normally dissipates within 5 hours
  • Accounts for ~10% of total energy expenditure
components of energy expenditure
Components of Energy Expenditure
  • Physical Activity = 30-50%
  • TEF = 10%
  • BMR = 50-65%
measurement of energy expenditure
MEASUREMENT of ENERGY EXPENDITURE
  • Estimating energy expenditure:
  • EER – an equation used to estimate REE based on age, weight, height, and sex
  • Page 257
body composition
BODY COMPOSITION
  • Assessing body weight:
  • weight tables
  • body mass index (BMI) =

weight (kg)

height (m2)

body composition1
BODY COMPOSITION
  • As the BMI table shows, healthy weight falls between a BMI of approximately 18.5 and 24.9.
body fat distribution
BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION
  • gynoid obesity (pear-shaped figure), more common in women
  • android obesity (apple-shaped figure), more common in men
    • increases risk of heart disease and diabetes mellitus (Type II)
what causes obesity current thinking
WHAT CAUSES OBESITY?Current Thinking
  • Hereditary and genetic factors
  • Sociocultural influences
  • Age and lifestyle
  • Sex
  • Race and ethnicity
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Employment
  • Psychological factors
energy imbalance overweight and obesity
ENERGY IMBALANCE: Overweight and Obesity
  • Health risks (page 265)
  • Prevalence of overweight and obesity – it is a worldwide public health problem. We are now seeing an obesity epidemic in children as well as adults.
obesity in our children
OBESITY in our CHILDREN
  • National Center for Health Statistics suggests nearly 25% of children are overweight or obese
  • There are now about 5 million obese children in the United States – up by 50% since 1991
obesity in our children1
OBESITY in our CHILDREN

A 1999 Survey of Seattle High Schools showed that:

  • 9% of males and 6% of females were overweight
health consequences
HEALTH CONSEQUENCES
  • Overweight children and adolescents are more likely to become overweight or obese adults
  • Type 2 diabetes, high blood lipids, hypertension, early maturation and orthopedic problems also occur with increased frequency in overweight youth
economic consequences
ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES
  • In 2000, the total cost of obesity was estimated to be $117 billion
  • Most of the cost associated with obesity is due to type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension
weight management what works
WEIGHT MANAGEMENTWhat Works?????
  • Unfortunately, there is no magic pill, no perfect diet. The simple fact is, if you consume more calories than you burn, you will gain weight
  • A slow weight loss (1-2 pounds per week) is the best way
  • To lose 1 pound of fat, you must burn an extra 3500 calories (in one week that = 500 calories per day)
weight management
WEIGHT MANAGEMENT
  • Important Components:
    • Diet composition
    • Physical activity
    • Behavioral change
    • Balancing acceptance and change
    • Support!
diet composition
DIET COMPOSITION
  • A Healthful Eating Plan Involves:
    • Realistic energy intake
    • Nutritional adequacy
    • Small portions, small frequent meals
    • Reduced simple sugar and alcohol intake
    • Adequate water
physical activity
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
  • Contributions to weight loss and maintenance:
    • Direct increases in energy output (muscles and cardiovascular system)
    • Indirect energy output (elevated BMR)
    • Appetite control
    • Psychological benefits
  • Note: Spot reducing is not possible.
behavioral change

Figure 7-7 Food and Activity Diary

BEHAVIORAL CHANGE
  • Behavior modification: the changing of behavior by the manipulation of antecedents (cues or environmental factors that trigger behavior), the behavior itself, and consequences (the penalties or rewards attached to behavior).
support
SUPPORT
  • Family
  • Friends
  • Weight Loss Support Groups
weight management1
WEIGHT MANAGEMENT
  • Adjuncts to treatment
    • Drugs
    • Self-help activities
    • Commercial programs
    • Professional private counselors
    • Surgery: gastric bypass, gastric banding
why is abdominal fat bad
Why is abdominal fat bad?
  • http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsweek/Abdominal-fat-and-what-to-do-about-it.htm