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Juicing and Cancer. Chelsey Bauer. What is Juicing?. Extracting juice from fresh fruits and vegetables Use of a juicing machine. Benefits. Low in Fat Allows for an easier way to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables High in antioxidants and vitamins

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juicing and cancer

Juicing and Cancer

Chelsey Bauer

what is juicing
What is Juicing?
  • Extracting juice from fresh fruits and vegetables
  • Use of a juicing machine
benefits
Benefits
  • Low in Fat
  • Allows for an easier way to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables
  • High in antioxidants and vitamins
  • If organic foods are used, low in GMO foods
  • Less digestion required/Increased bioavailability in body
  • Raw fruits and vegetables have increased levels of nutrients
juicing in the public
Juicing in the public
  • Dr. Oz has recently promoted juicing for detoxification diets and power drinks
  • Websites like www.webMD.com and www.mayoclinic.com
objectives
Objectives
  • Fruits and vegetables have chemopreventative effects
  • Vitamin supplements can be toxic and cause reverse cancerous effects
  • Americans are not eating enough fruits and vegetables
  • Juicing is a possible solution for cancer protection/prevention
terms to know
Terms to know:
  • Antioxidant: molecule inhibits oxidation of other molecules (cancer cells are oxidizing agents)
  • Polyphenols: type of antioxidant containing phenolic structure
  • Proliferation: to grow or multiply rapidly
  • Apoptosis: disintegration of cells into membrane-bound particles that are then eliminated by phagocytosis or by shedding
blueberry phytochemical study
Blueberry phytochemical study
  • Designed to test the chemopreventative activity of blueberry juice on breast cancer cells
  • In vitro and in vivo studies
  • Materials
    • Whole fresh blueberries juiced
    • Cancer cells obtained by the American Type Culture Collection
    • 16 mice for in vivo studies: 8 control 8 blueberry juice treated
in vitro
In Vitro
  • In vitro studies initially done to show the effects researchers believed polyphenols had
  • Methods:
    • Whole blueberry juice, and 3 fractions of blueberry juice examined for their % polyphenols.
    • Then all were tested for their effect on 3 types of cancer cell lines and 1 non cancer cell line.
  • Results:
    • Although Ethyl Acetate fraction of blueberry juice had highest phenolic percentages, the whole blueberry juice tested for highest effect on cancer cell lines and highest effect on most aggressive cell line MDA-MB-231 with no effect on the non cancer cell line.
    • Blueberry juice caused decreased proliferation in cancer cell lines
    • Blueberry juice caused increases apoptosis
in vivo
In vivo
  • Methods:
    • 8 mice tube fed 100uL water and 8 fed 100uL blueberry juice for 1 week
    • Injected with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells
    • Continued water or blueberry treatment for 6 more weeks
  • Results
    • Significantly smaller tumor weights in mice treated with blueberry
    • Consistent with in vitro studies: proliferation of tumor specimens was decreased in blueberry treated mice and aptosis increased.
discussion
Discussion
  • Similar results to a cranberry study which also showed fractions of berry had less antiproliferative effect on cancer cells than whole berry juice in vitro
  • In rats tumor size was decreased by a decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis.
  • Similar to study done by Aiyer that showed tumor size in rats decreased by 40% in rats orally treated with blueberry powder as opposed to rats treated with water.
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Whole berries are more chemo effective than fractions of a berries alone.
  • Blueberries could be key component in breast cancer prevention strategies due to their proven effects on tumor control.
  • Doses of blueberries used in rats were equal to 122 grams or 4.3 ounces of fresh blueberries per day.
  • A single serving size of blueberries is 6 ounces.
slide12

We have determined fruits can have a protective effect against cancer cells.

  • What else can vegetables do for us?
terms to know1
Terms to know
  • Phase 2 Detoxification Enzymes
  • Sulforaphane is an isothiocyanate that induces Phase 2 Detoxification enzymes
broccoli sprout study
Broccoli Sprout Study
  • Background and previous findings:
    • After a series of laboratory studies, researchers found that broccoli is rich in phytochemicals that induce phase 2 detoxication enzymes and increase antioxidant activities in mammalian cells.
    • Sulforaphane, which is an isothiocyanate found in vegetables.
    • Found vegetables as inert precursors termed glucosinolates.
    • Isothiocyanates are released when glucosinolates are hydrolyzed by myrosinase, an enzyme that coexists with glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables and activates in our intestinal microflora.
    • Dithiocarbamates in urine indicate isothiocyanates were absorbed and metabolized.
purpose
Purpose:
  • This study is designed to test the bioavailability of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in humans to determine whether cruciferous vegetables are a good source of isothiocyanates to therefore have potential protective cancerous effects.
methods
Methods
  • Used healthy non smoking individuals
  • Measure urine for dithiocarbamates
  • 2 groups: inpatients and out patients
  • Inpatients diet:
    • A diet free of glucosinolates or isothiocyanates was given
    • Urine samples taken every 4 and 8 hours
    • Only allowed to eat or drink what was provided
    • 7hour fasting period every night from 12 am-7 am when they were administered broccoli sprouts.
  • Outpatient diet:
    • Asked to abstain from eating foods with glucosinolates or isothiocyanates and keep a food diary.
    • Consumed broccoli sprouts at same time after fasting period.
methods cont
Methods Cont.
  • Homogenate broccoli sprouts created.
    • boiled to rid sprouts of myrosinaseand phytochemicals and dosed with either glucosinolates or isothiocyanates.
    • 111umol glucosinolates or isothiocyantes
    • Crossed treatment after 3 days
    • After 9 days daikon homogenate (myrosinase)
    • Check urine for dithiocarbamates.
results cont
Results Cont
  • Urine dithiocarbamate levels spiked and were at peak after 4 hours of consumption of broccoli sprouts.
  • Myrosinaseis a key component in vegetables that allows glucosinolates to be converted to isothiocyanates and increase bioavailability.
  • Whole fresh vegetable consumption is best for diet.
fruit and vegetable conclusions
Fruit and Vegetable Conclusions
  • Suggested to eat both often for the benefits.
  • Juicing a way to help consume both
  • Many people would rather have an easier option so,

“why not just take a supplement?”

caret study
CARET study

Evidence from observational studies has shown that people eating more fruits and vegetables that are rich in B-carotene (antioxidant and can be converted to vitamin A) and Retinol (an chemical form of Vitamin A) had lower rates of lung cancer

Created supplements of each to test in humans

methods1
Methods
  • Double-blind placebo-controlled
  • Tested in humans at high risk for developing lung cancer
  • Non-placebo subjects received 30 mg B-carotene and 25,000 IU retinylpalmitate (Vitamin A) daily.
results1
Results
  • Study stopped 21 months early
  • 28% more lung cancer incidents and 17% more deaths in B-carotene and Retinol treated group
  • Agreed with ATBC study which found 16% more cases of lung cancer in subjects receiving B-carotene supplements
conclusions1
Conclusions
  • The supplements administered had toxic and reverse chemopreventative effects.
  • Amounts administered daily were toxic levels. (10,000 IU is the upper limit of Vitamin A)
  • Supplements were also purified agents.
fruit and vegetable intake
Fruit and Vegetable Intake
  • Recommended >2 cup fruit and >3 cup vegetables depeding on age and activity
  • National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data provided by the Center for Disease Control
fruit and vegetable intake1
Fruit and Vegetable Intake
  • Based on study Americans need to increase intake
  • Juicing allows this in an easy way
  • Dr. Oz drink:
    • 2 cups spinach1/2 cucumber1/4 head of celery
    • 1/2 bunch parsley
    • 1 bunch mint
    • 3 carrots
    • 2 apples
    • 1/4 orange
    • 1/4 lime
    • 1/4 lemon
    • 1/4 pineapple
conclusions2
Conclusions
  • Healthy easy way to increase fruit and vegetable intake
  • Non toxic levels but still increased amounts (natural form and concentrations)
  • Prevent cancer
  • Protect against cancer
further studies
Further Studies
  • Juicing and cancer prevention
  • Whole fruit vs. supplement in same dosage
  • More in vivo studies
references
References
  • Adams, L. S., Phung, S., Yee, N., Seeram, N. P., Li, L., & Chen, S. (2010). Blueberry phytochemicals inhibit growth and metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells through modulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Cancer Research, 70(9), 3594-3605. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-3565; 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-3565
  • consistency/author should come first Blueberry Phytochemicals Inhibit Growth and Metastatic Potential of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells through Modulation . (n.d.). Cancer Research . Retrieved March 15, 2013, from http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/70/9
  • Body Detox Diets Myths - Are They Necessary or Safe?. (n.d.). WebMD . Retrieved March 14, 2013, from http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/guide/detox-diets-purging-myths?page=2
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  • Cancer Statistics. (n.d.). Wiley Online Library. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.3322/
  • Dietary fiber: Essential for a healthy diet . (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/fiber/NU00033
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  • Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Adults . (n.d.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml
  • Globocan 2000 - Parkin - 2001 - International Journal of Cancer - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Wiley Online Library. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/
  • Hendrickson, K. (n.d.). Digestion Of Food Vs. Drink . LIVESTRONG.COM. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from http://www.livestrong.com/article/449762-digestion-of-food-vs-drink/
  • How does chemotherapy work? . (n.d.). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0041062
  • Kimmons, J., Gillespie, C., Seymour, J., Serdula, M., & Blanck, H. M. (2009). Fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents and adults in the united states: Percentage meeting individualized recommendations. Medscape Journal of Medicine, 11(1), 26.
  • MD, C. M. (n.d.). How Antioxidants Work: Preventing Free Radical Damage and Oxidation. WebMD . Retrieved March 14, 2013, from http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/features/how-antioxidants-work1
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  • Nondigestible Oligo‐ and Polysaccharides (Dietary Fiber): Their Physiology and Role in Human Health and Food . (n.d.). Wiley Online Library. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2002.tb00009.x/abstract
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  • Risk Factors for Lung Cancer and for Intervention Effects in CARET, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial . (n.d.). Oxford Journals. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/88/21/
  • Shapiro, T. A., Fahey, J. W., Wade, K. L., Stephenson, K. K., & Talalay, P. (2001). Chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of broccoli sprouts: Metabolism and excretion in humans. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : A Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 10(5), 501-508.
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