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Group 17 . The Halogens. Physical Properties. At room temperature all the halogens exist as diatomic molecules. The melting points, boiling points, atomic radii and ionic radii all increase on descending the Group. Fluorine is never surrounded by more than 8 electrons.

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group 17

Group 17

The Halogens

physical properties
Physical Properties

At room temperature all the halogens exist as diatomic molecules. The melting points, boiling points, atomic radii and ionic radii all increase on descending the Group.

Fluorine is never surrounded by more than 8 electrons.

Except for the other halogens may be surrounded by up to 14 electrons.

chemical properties
Chemical Properties
  • The most characteristic chemical feature of the halogens is their ability to oxidize.
  • Fluorine has the strongest oxidizing ability, so other elements which combine with fluorine have their highest possible oxidation number.
  • Fluorine is such a strong oxidizing agent that it must be prepared by electrolysis.
  • Chlorine is the next strongest oxidizing agent, but it can be prepared by chemical oxidation.
  • Chlorine, bromine and iodine disproportionate in the presence of water and alkalis.
reactive
Reactive?

The elements of Group 17, the Halogens, are a very similar set of non-metals. The halogen oxides are acidic, and the hydrides are covalent.

Fluorine is the most electronegative element of all.

Fluorine shows some unique creation because of the small size of its atom and ion. This allows several F atoms to pack around a different central atom, as in AlF63- compared with AlCl4-.

The F-F bond is also unexpectedly weak because the small size of the F atom brings the lone pairs closer together than in other halogens, and repulsion weakens the bond.

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Atomic Number Atomic Mass Boiling Point

F 9 19.99 85.01

Cl 17 35.45 239.18

Br 35 79.90 331.93

I 53 126.90 457.50

Data
here s some facts
Here’s some facts

Fluorine is a poisonous pale yellow gas.

Chlorine is a poisonous pale green gas.

Bromine is a toxic and caustic brown volatile liquid.

Iodine is a shiny black solid which easily sublimes to form a violet vapor on heating.