Geography/China. Major Geographic Features: 1. Surrounded by a variety of natural barriers that has allowed China to be isolated over most of their history. a.The Gobi Desert to the north (cold and dry) b.The Himalayans to the south west c. The Tibetan Plateau to the west
Shang Dynasty: 1600 B.C.
Their major contribution was a system of writing.
The Chinese system of writing includes tens of thousands of characters, and is very difficult to learn.
The ancient Chinese system of writing used pictographs, or drawings of objects, and ideographs, lines that represent ideas.
A revolution started against the Shang leader. They created the Mandate of Heaven as the excuse to overthrow the government.
Mandate of Heaven (Son of Heaven)
The belief that God gave the leader the right to rule, but if the ruler doesn’t do a good job the people can rebel.
unified China for the first time.
Their leader named himself the First Emperor
The Qin are sometimes called the Ch'in, which is probably where the name China originated.
They used many new technologies in warfare, especially cavalry.
Ended Legalism returned to Confucianism
This made the people happy, they were tired of the strict Legalist government.
Began trade with the west to obtain horses, resulted in what was known as the “silk road”
Began “civil service” exams, positions in government are now awarded by merit (people took tests, the highest scores got the jobs) not family status (meaning the rich).
This allowed people from all classes to feel that they had an opportunity for social mobility.
It is one of the greatest achievements in China’s history!!!
This becomes one of the most important reasons for the success of China.
The invention of cast iron tools can also be credited to the people of the Han dynasty.
Wars and large armies put an enormous burden on the economy.
Nomads in the north and near the Korean Peninsula destroyed the Chinese settlements
The land became overpopulated, and thousands were forced into banditry or even selling their children as slaves.
The Huns were one of the groups that attacked China.
Government officials became increasingly corrupt.
Officials were chosen on merit rather than by birth, The Emperor held regular examinations to select able people, this ended corruption
In order to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor, the Sui used the "land equalization system".
Took land from the wealthy and gave it to the poor.
At the same time, the government unified the coins, took over making money, and standardized weights and measures.
The Sui Dynasty re-established contact with foreign nations by reopening the Silk Road.
the first printer was invented.
fireworks were invented
Ceramics also made a great improvement for storing food and drinks
They traded with, India, the Middle East, and Byzantium.
They improved the compass
BIG MISTAKE WAS FORCING BUDDHIST MONKS OUT OF THE COUNTRY
(Neo-Confucianism) a combination of Daoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism came to dominate the empire during the Song Dynasty
the invention of gunpowder
The world's first Printing with movable type, magnetic compass and calculator (the abacus) were invented.
Starting from the Tang or the beginning of the Song, small packages of gunpowder wrapped in paper or bamboo were attached to arrows, which marked the first use of gunpowder in war (see the illustration at left). These would be lit with a fuse of some kind, intended to set targets afire.
The consumption of tea increased in China and abroad
Ceramics technology became the most advanced in the world
The introduction of the mariner's compass and improvements in shipbuilding helped steady growth in overseas trade with Asia and the Middle East.
Probably one of the most detrimental practices was one that women in China performed for nearly one thousand years.
It reflected the role of women in Chinese society and Confucian moral values for women of domesticity, motherhood, and handwork
It was necessary for a woman to have bound feet in order to marry well and achieve a good and moral life.
Mothers bound their daughters’ feet, beginning between about five and seven years of age. All toes except the big toe were folded under the foot and pulled back toward the arch, held in place by a long strip of cloth, creating a steep, concave arch and fold in the center of the sole.
the Song were invaded by a massive Mongol horde assembled by Genghis Khan. China was fully conquered by his grandson Kublai Khan in 1279 AD.
The Yuan Dynasty lasted from 1279-1368 A.D
Kublai Khan established his capital at Beijing and built a magnificent palace complex for himself, the Forbidden City
Certain key Chinese innovations,such as printing techniques, porcelain production, playing cards,gun powder and medical literature, were introduced in other areas of the world
The most famous traveler of the period was Marco Polo
To provide against possible famines, granaries were ordered built throughout the empire
The Black Death, also known as Bubonic plague, appears to have started in Central Asia in the early 1300's.
During the Song-Yuan period, the "four great inventions" in science and technology of the Chinese people in ancient times — papermaking, printing, the compass and gunpowder — were further developed, and spread throughout the Mongol Empire
During the rule of the Ming, China went through a commercial revolution that changed the country and made it a world power during it’s time.
In particular, small business grew that specialized in paper, silk, cotton and porcelain goods
A major mistake made in the mid 15th c. was to dismantle their navy
In the mid 1600’s the wonderful Ming dynasty started to decline
There were three major factors that led to the decline of the Ming.
One was weak leaders.
The second factor was rebellion the Ming increased taxes on the common people
The Manchus were the third and final factor that led to the end of the Ming dynasty in 1643 The Q’ing dynasty was established