done by c rystal chew 2 tan ying hui 9 ryan wee 25 muhd dhafer 19 rohith srinivas 22 n.
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An example of development in Science and Technology that man brings about is:. Done by: C rystal Chew (2), Tan Ying Hui (9), Ryan Wee (25), Muhd Dhafer (19), Rohith Srinivas (22). P6 Victorious, Group 3. Description. Biotechnology is the use or modification of organisms or

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Biotechnology is the use or modification of organisms or

their processes for human purposes, such as developing medicines or enhancing crops. In biotechnology, humans alter

biotic factors to achieve desired outcomes. Biotechnology is applied in five main ways – red, white,green, blue and black.

description red biotechnology
DescriptionRed Biotechnology

Red biotechnology is applied medically. Man alters the genetic makeup of organisms to produce or improve a medical product, or to observe the reaction of a genetically-modified organism to a medical product.

description white biotechnology
DescriptionWhite Biotechnology

White biotechnology is industrial-centred. Man alters the genetic makeup of organisms or uses them to create products which are industrially useful, destroy harmful products, or simplify industrial processes.

description green biotechnology
DescriptionGreen Biotechnology

Green biotechnology is applied agriculturally. It is used to find or modify the genetic characteristics of crops or livestock. Man alters the organisms' genetic makeup to produce the desired outcome.

description blue biotechnology
DescriptionBlue Biotechnology

Blue biotechnology is applied to marine environments. Man alters organisms' genetic makeups and introduces them to a marine environment or introduces existing substances or organisms to ensure marine safety.

description black biotechnology
DescriptionBlack Biotechnology

Blackbiotechnology is all about creating energy. Man

creates renewable energy faster to replace fossil fuels, which are running out and pollute the environment. Man alters or creates organisms to create clean and natural energy.

guiding questions
Guiding Questions
  • Human Activity - Should man bear responsibility towards the environment from which he draws his resources?
  • Technology - Is technology good or bad in itself?
human activity
Human Activity

Humans carry out many activities to meet our needs and to

build better lives. These activities have a great impact on:

  • the Earth,
  • the human race,
  • the environment, and
  • the organisms that inhabit the Earth.

As we live, we:

  • take many resources from the environment.
  • release harmful substances to the environment, such as greenhouse gases.
human activity1
Human Activity

Over time, this causes many environmental problems which

may be difficult to fix if left unchecked for a long time. Our

activities can completely change the ecosystem to such an

extent that nature can no longer repair the damage. Thus,

to satisfy our needs, we inadvertently sacrifice the future of

the Earth and the organisms that live on it.



  • Saves lives (medicine)
  • People have more access to knowledge
  • Saves time
  • Brings enjoyment
  • Always connected to others


  • People get lazier
  • Expensive
  • People lose social skills
  • Cyber-bullying
  • Easier for criminals to carry out crimes

Technology is good as long as it does not become out of hand, and is used responsibly and appropriately.

benefits to man and the community
Benefits to Man and the Community
  • Fermentation - Food Production
  • Medicinal Benefits - Red Biotechnology
  • GM Foods - Green Biotechnology
  • Industrial Benefits - White Biotechnology
  • Marine Benefits - Blue Biotechnology
  • Renewable Energy Sources - Black Biotechnology

What is fermentation?

  • Fermentation is a process of chemical change caused by organisms or their products, usually producing effervescence and heat.
  • Fermentation is the oldest of all biotechnological processes, an anaerobic process where energy is produced without the participation of oxygen or other inorganic electron acceptors.

How is fermentation useful to organisms?

In the absence of oxygen, yeast and bacteria carry out fermentation to obtain energy for growth and respiration.


Examples of fermentation at work:

  • Production of beer, wine and bread involve fermentation of sugar by yeast.
  • Bread - Yeast ferments sugar in the dough. Carbon dioxide is produced and forms gas bubbles. They expand and cause the dough to rise when baked.
  • Production of cheese and yoghurt involve the fermentation of milk by bacteria.
medicinal benefits red biotechnology
Medicinal BenefitsRed Biotechnology
  • Vaccines
    • Safer and more effective
  • New cures for genetic diseases (Gene therapy)
    • Genetic modification of organisms so that they produce new medicines, such as antibiotics
  • Study of how a person's genetic inheritance alters his or her response to drugs (pharmacogenomics)
    • Modifying organisms' genetic makeup to test their reactions to certain medical products
    • Medical products that are tailored to an individual's genetic needs, more accurate dosage of drugs.
  • Better genetic testing
    • Scientists can design probes to examine the DNA molecule.
gm foods green biotechnology
GM FoodsGreen Biotechnology

1. Farmers will harvest more crops (Better crop yield)

Explanation: GM Crops are pest-resistant, which would result in lesser crops lost to insect attacks. GM Crops can also be modified so that they produce seeds faster. This is a solution to the problem of a dwindling food supply due to a rapid increase of world population.

Example: Cotton (cottonseed oil): Pest-resistant due to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein gene added/transferred to plant genome

gm foods green biotechnology1
GM FoodsGreen Biotechnology

2. Healthier food for consumers

Explanation: There will be a decrease in the usage of pesticides so the food will contain less chemicals.

3. Better working conditions for workers (farmers)

Explanation: Less exposure to harmful chemicals found in pesticides, as there is no need to use them anymore.

Pesticides can cause toxic effects, Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome and cancer.

gm foods green biotechnology2
GM FoodsGreen Biotechnology

4. More environmentally-friendly

Explanation: Less harmful chemicals such as those found in pesticides will be released into the air, as less pesticides will be needed.

  • These chemicals harm other non-target species of medicinal value, reducing biodiversity
    • Cocoa plant - Used for anaesthetics
    • Cinchona Tree - Used for quinine, a cure for malaria
    • Curare Liana - Used as tubocurarine, a muscle relaxant for surgery
    • Calabar Bean - Used as neostigmine, a cure for glaucoma
    • Wild Yams - Used to make cortisone, an ingredient in birth control pills.
    • Rosy Periwinkle - Used to make vincristine, which treats paediatric leukaemia and Hodgkin's disease.
  • They may contribute to soil contamination and cause water pollution
gm foods green biotechnology3
GM FoodsGreen Biotechnology

5. More nutritional food

Explanation: The creation of GM foods allows the foods to contain more nutrients from the genes that are inserted into the organism.

Examples: Golden Rice - Increased iron and Vitamin A

Canola (seeds are used for producing edible oil) with oils that have lesser cholesterol

Golden Rice

Normal Rice

gm foods green biotechnology4
GM FoodsGreen Biotechnology

6. Better storage properties and Improved taste

Example: Flavr-Savr tomato

To develop their full flavour, tomatoes need to ripen on the vine. However, as they ripen, they become soft, making it hard to harvest and to maintain in ideal conditions for sale. Hence, farmers harvest before tomatoes are ripe and make them ripe using ethylene gas which results in the loss of flavour.

Flavour-Savour tomatoes ripen on the vine longer while maintaining firmer skin.

gm foods green biotechnology5
GM FoodsGreen Biotechnology

7. Crops are disease-resistant


  • Hawaiian Papaya: Resistant to Papaya Ringspot Virus
    • New gene transferred into plant genome
  • Squash (Zucchini): Resistant to watermelon, cucumber and zucchini yellow mosaic viruses
    • Contains coat protein genes of viruses
  • Sweet Peppers: Resistant to virus
    • Contains coat protein genes of the virus
gm foods green biotechnology6
GM FoodsGreen Biotechnology

8. Crops can have increased tolerance to unfavourable conditions

Explanation: Wheat, rice and maize crops that are drought-tolerant are currently being created. These crops can grow in water-deficient lands and prevent harvest shortfalls in the event of a drought. This enables more crops to be produced though in dry land.

industrial benefits white biotechnology
Industrial BenefitsWhite Biotechnology
  • New and valuable chemicals that can act as catalysts to speed up industrial processes
    • With the correct processes and modification, enzymes can be used to create chemicals needed for industrial processes
  • More environmentally-friendly processes
    • When organisms are used to speed up or complete biological processes, less carbon emissions are produced
  • Bioleaching
    • Easier extraction of metals from their ores by bacteria.
  • Cleanup of waste and sites contaminated by industrial activities
    • Organisms can be designed to break these harmful chemicals down.
marine benefits blue biotechnology
Marine BenefitsBlue Biotechnology
  • Cleaning up of Marine oil spills.
    • Organisms are designed to break down crude oil from oil spills. E.g.: Scientist Ananda Chakrabarty developed a bacterium that breaks down crude oil.
    • The organisms introduced remove the oil.
    • They help to clean up the crude oil faster than a human can, hence reducing the damage caused by oil spills.
  • Increase of supply of certain seafood
    • Organisms can be designed in order to do this.
  • Control of spread of certain dangerous seafood
    • Organisms can be designed to limit the spread of this seafood.
renewable energy sources black biotechnology
Renewable Energy SourcesBlack Biotechnology
  • Cleaner Energy Sources
    • Microbes can absorb carbon dioxide and convert it to a more complex molecule.
    • This gives us energy without the need for burning, which is needed for fossil fuels. Burning causes carbon dioxide to be released into the atmosphere.
  • Renewable Energy Sources
    • The time needed for the microbes to produce energy is short.
    • On the other hand, coal takes a much longer period of time (compared to our lifespan) to form.
future of biotechnology
Future of Biotechnology
  • Red Biotechnology – Chemical Engineering of Medicine
    • Plants that slow down Growth Congenital Diseases like AIDS and Cancer now can be genetically modified to cure and even prevent these diseases
  • White Biotechnology – Plant Fuel
    • New research suggests that cleaner and more efficient oil from genetically-modified plants can be used to power machinery in factories.
  • Green Biotechnology - Cloning
    • New research suggests that widespread cloning may be possible for crops and livestock in near future. Though scientists had failed in the first experiment of “Dolly the sheep”, a newer, safer method has been discovered to clone organisms more quickly.
future of biotechnology1
Future of Biotechnology
  • Blue Biotechnology – New species of Phytoplankton
    • Scientists have been able to engineer a species of phytoplankton that is able to reproduce faster, increasing the supply of food for the animals in the sea.
    • This solves the problem of a lack of seafood for fishing and goes some way in preventingthe extinction of certain sea species.
  • Black Biotechnology – Energy Structuring
    • New research suggests that we will soon be able to harness genetically-modified microbes.
    • They will halve energy consumption, reducing the consumption of earth’s natural resources. They will also be used to speed up the forming of fossil fuels.
impacts of biotechnology on the environment and ecology
Impacts of Biotechnology on the Environment and Ecology
  • Positive Effects
    • Cleaning up of Oil Spills more efficiently
    • Less chemicals such as those found in pesticides are released into the environment
  • Negative Effects
    • Unintended harm to other organisms in the ecosystem when modifying crops
    • Crops: Cross-pollination with other non-GM crops resulting in potentially hazardous offspring
    • New weeds or pests due to the GM crops and livestock which are hard to control.