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  1. What is the world’s best selling book? THE BIBLE What book covers more than 2000 years of history? What was the first book published In 1456 after the printing press Was invented? What is one of the oldest manuscripts In existence?

  2. What do Jewish and Christian people have in common? Old Testament

  3. Introduction to Scriptures A Judeo-Christian world view of God’s relationship with humanity

  4. Jewish Hebrew scripture History of Israel Covenant with God Christian Roots in the OT Cannot understand Jesus with out OT, Jesus was Jewish it is the foundation of all he taught Therefore, we cannot understand the New without the Old 1. Old Testament

  5. Culture Literary forms How? History Archeology Why? Discovery of the intended meaning

  6. Author? Human writers Different times Different types of writing Subject? God’s role in shaping human events Audience? Israelites

  7. Number of books in OT— Jewish Protestant Catholic l l l 39 39 46

  8. Torah a Nebiium a Ketubim

  9. 2. Canon • Authentic list of sacred books found in the Bible. • “reed” –Greek • Defined April 8 with the council of Trent. • Process of writing took centuries. • First 5 books were believed to be written by Moses. • In 3rd century they were translated into Greek (written in mostly Hebrew/some Aramaic). • Greek translation is called Septuagint –“70” in Greek (from a tradition that it was translated by 72 scholars in 72 days). This is the basis for Catholic canon of OT and the Orthodox canon. The protestant and Jews do not accept all these books and have extras in a writing called the Apocrypha.

  10. 3. Revelation/Inspiration/Authorship • Reveal = disclose hidden • Religious revelation = God’s deliberate and gradual disclosure to humans (not dictated/not fact or science) • God remains the same • Human understanding of God develops with time • Inspiration = divine influence • Guardian of God’s revelation • God moved the hearts and minds of the writers to write what he wanted from them • “to breathe into”

  11. covenant—sacred agreement basis of spiritual life leads to a deeper love of Jesus Teaches about Trinity Understanding of our faith Belief in one God--Monotheism God created everything/ Humans in his image Chosen people=Jews (called after fall of Jerusalem) Hebrews (before Exodus); Israelites after desert Defining moments of Jews: Exodus/ Passover/ Law/ New covenant New covenant—Jesus 4. Why study the Bible?

  12. Mesopotamia —Valley of the Tigris and Euphrates river (mostly now Iraq) —Formed the Fertile Crescent: —subject to coastal invasions —coastal area = “way to the sea” Egypt Along the Nile More Stable 5. Where in the World… semicircle of rich farm and grazing land

  13. Languages of the Bible Hebrew: Hebrew Scriptures had no vowels. Greek: Wisdom, Maccabees, Baruch, Ben Sirach parts of Daniel, and Esther Ezra, and Jeremiah Aramaic: Tobit and Judith

  14. Early Versions of the Old Testament Masoretic Text (Hebrew) Septuagint (Greek) Vulgate (Latin)

  15. A leaf from the Masoretic

  16. 6. Old Testament history/ Salvation history • Salvation history= story of God’s actions and people’s responses over many centuries • Audience-Israelites • Believed they were covenantal people of God • Place—Ancient Near East • 2 civilizations: Mesopotamia—valley of Tigris and Euphrates river (now Iraq) Egypt—Nile river (modern Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria)

  17. Key MomentsPatriarchs (Abraham/ Isaac/Jacob) • Foundations • Blessing • promise

  18. Exodus (Moses and the people in the desert) • Slavery • Freedom • Liberation • Covenant • Wandering • Trust

  19. Conquest of Canaan (Joshua/Judges/Kings-Saul, David,Solomon) • Kingship • Worship (temple)

  20. Decline of Israel –(Solomon’s successors) • Division of the kingdom • Idolatry • Injustice • Prophets • Call back to covenant • Fall of Jerusalem/ • destruction of the temple Isaiah

  21. Exile and return—(Babylonian exile –Judas Maccabeus)Conquering/exile • Conquering/exile • Return home • Rebuilding the temple • Re-establishing Jerusalem

  22. More oppression  Jesus

  23. Oral: the Israelites kept their history alive by repeating it throughout many generations. Historical chronicles Genealogies Laws Cultural lore Inconsistent over time Written: individuals or groups recorded the oral traditions of the Israelites. Letters Memoirs Genealogies Palace and temple records Documents More inconstancy as changed over time Edited: Editors combined traditions into interpreted story of the dealings of God with humankind. 7. Stages

  24. Wrote on anything: stone, metal, wood, rocks, clay (Still around) 17C BCE used parchment—animal skins (sheep, goats, calves) soaked in lime water, scraped, stretched, dried and rubbed with chalk or pumice to smooth parchment could be handled, was more durable could write on both sides heavier and shinier Egyptians wrote as well but on Papyrus (4000 BCE -500CE) paper made from reeds of the Nile. Used in scrolls because the paper dried and became brittle First Bible was written on papyrus scrolls Writing started as pictographs, evolved to syllabic and the alphabetic (@ 2000 BCE in Indo-European) @ 3 syllables per minute. = 72 words per hour (6-7 lines of type) 140 words fit on a page of papyrus would take 2 days to fill page Letter to the Romans --@ 7200 words = 50 sheets of papyrus and 100 hours to write First writing @ 2000 years ago – Mesopotamia

  25. 8. Biblical parallels • Gilgamesh—2000 BCE -Mesopotamian Literature/Flood story • Code of Hammurabi –1792-1750 BCE -Babylonian/Rule book (similar to Ex/Lev/Deut) • Ptah-Hotep—2450 BCE -Egypt/ Wise sayings • Enuma Elish • Babylonian/creation story

  26. 9. Structure • Torah – “Law” –Hebrew • first 5 books called the law • Term is used by the Jews • Pentateuch – “five books” –Greek (term used by Christians)

  27. 10. Bible divisions • OT/ NT • OT written between 1900 BCE and 100 BCE, (most was probably between Solomon’s reign (900BCE) and the Exile (500 BCE) They were written on papyrus scrolls. None of the original manuscripts exist today. • Reveals God working in world and covenant. • Pentateuch • The “Law” • Tells the story of creation up through the time of the ancestors. • Codes of Laws and Warnings • Historical • Conquest of Canaan through the dissolution of the United Monarchy and through the occupation of the Babylonian, Persian, and Greek Empires • Wisdom • Poetry • Job • Proverbs (wise sayings • Explores life’s great questions • Offers practical advise • Prophetic • Major and Minor prophets • Sermons • Warns of the trappings of life

  28. 11. Versions • Original languages of the OT are Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek. (NT are Greek and some Aramaic) • ~1452 first printed Bible • Septuagint (2-3 century CE) – A translation into Greek for the Jews in Alexandria, Egypt • Vulgate (end of 4th century CE) St. Jerome translated into Latin, common language of the world at that time. • King James Version (1611) Protestant edition. OT from Hebrew/ NT from Greek • Revised Standard Version (1953) Modern Protestant Version • Living Bible (1971) –Paraphrased version • Good News – Paraphrased version

  29. 12. Interpretation • Understand historical setting of writing • Know key concepts of author as they intended and uses them (not modern definition) • Appreciate literary forms/devises used • Use scholarly studies (archeology/ historical/ literary/ cultural) • Use Church guidance (Tradition/ Magisterium)

  30. 13. Old Testament Literary Terms • Stories of Origin—tells how something came to be • Short stories—brief narrative with a plot • Psalms—musical poetry • Epics—detailed history with a hero (Moses) • Folklore—tells traditional customs • Parable—short story with a moral lesson • Oracle—words of wisdom or advice from God through a person • Narrative—story usually detailed • Myth—symbolic story • Historical account—story that tells about a person or event • Apocalyptic—coming of God, and destruction of evil

  31. 14. Old Testament Literary Techniques • Imagery—helps to imagine scenes • Figures of speech—simile/metaphor—comparisons (not literal) • Parallelism—repetition of patterns or thoughts • Irony—what is said or done is contrary to what is expected • Symbolism—abstract or intangible things expressed in symbols