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  1. Science Inquiry and Students with Visual Impairment Tiffany Wild Ph.D. The Ohio State University Margilee Hilson, Ph.D. Columbus City Schools

  2. What is Inquiry? • Questions • Priority to evidence • Explanations to questions are formed from evidence • Evaluation of explanations in light of scientifically–based alternatives • Communication and justification (NRC, 2000, p. 25)

  3. How does inquiry fit learning theory? • Theory of constructivism. • Mimics the knowledge acquisition process of scientists • Knowledge is thought to be gained by applying existing knowledge to problems and then confirming or revising beliefs in light of new data.

  4. Research on Inquiry-Based Instruction • Documented rise in test scores, greater confidence, students likely to learn more, and ability to overcome misconceptions (Geir, Blumenfeld, Max, Krajcik, Fishman, Soloway, and Clay-Chambers, 2008; Brickman, Gormally, Armstron, & Hallar, 2009; Michael, 2006) • Inquiry-based instructional techniques were beneficial for students with disabilities (Lynch, S., Taymans, J., Watson, W., Ochesendorf, R., Pyke, C., & Szesze, M., 2007) • Less behavior problems tend to result from the use of this teaching process (Mastropieri, 2005)

  5. Inquiry-Based Science Instruction and Students with Visual Impairments • Science teachers utilized inquiry-based methodologies in 61.1% of the classrooms which contained visually impaired students (Wild & Paul, 2012) • Survey of 1,088 Science teachers found that • 54% felt least prepared to teach students with visual impairments of all disability groups • 66% felt unprepared in using Assistive Technology in the classroom • 29% felt concerned about safety in the science classroom • 80% felt that mandatory training should take place to teach students with disabilities (Kahn & Lewis, 2013)

  6. Inquiry-Based Curriculum Research and Students with Visual Impairments • Inquiry-based instructional techniques have been reported for teaching the concepts of scale, environmental science, seasonal change, space, sound and geoscience to students with visual impairment (Jones, Taylor, & Broadwell, 2008; Rule, 2011; Wild & Trundle, 2010a; 2010b; Wild, Hobson, & Hilson 2012; Wild, Hilson, & Farrand, in review). • Inquiry-Based instruction has been beneficial for students with visual impairments in overcoming scientific misconceptions • Students have many misconceptions that are different from their sighted peer Wild & Trundle, 2010a; 2010b; Wild, Hobson, & Hilson 2012; Wild, Hilson, & Farrand, in review)

  7. Students’ with VI Conceptual Understanding of Sound • Week long summer camp • Participants: aged 8-11 years-old, n=15 • Integration of braille reading and writing • Inquiry opportunities for learning about sound • Results: all students developed some scientifically accurate concepts of sound

  8. Students’ with VI Conceptual Understanding of Geoscience • Week long summer camp • Participants: 13-18 years old n=16 • Incorporated field-based experiences and experts in geology • Inquiry also included lab work and • Results: increased scientific responses held simultaneously with misconceptions

  9. Seasonal change

  10. Conservation- turkeys!

  11. Science Inquiry and Students with VI • Week long summer camp • Participants: aged 8-18, n=22 • Student initiated inquiry projects • Included all 8 science & engineering practices • Results: students demonstrated capacity to ask questions, collect data and create explanations from evidence

  12. Role of the Teacher in Inquiry-Based Instruction • Teachers are facilitators • Ask productive questions to help students develop testable questions • Structure the environment in order to help students obtain and focus on evidence • Provide supplies and resources • Make connections between observed student evidence and scientific theory • Ensure that students communicate learning

  13. Format of an inquiry lesson 5 E model

  14. Adaptive tools • Audio-enabled scales • Raised texture measurement tools

  15. Explore with magnets Do magnets work through: • Cardboard? • Paper? • Plastic? • Water? • Hands? • Make a prediction, test it and record the results

  16. Next Generation Science Standards

  17. Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Purpose • To provide science education for all students K–12 that prepares them for college and careers • To increase scientific and technological literacy enabling students to become informed citizens in a democracy and knowledgeable consumers

  18. NGSS Partners • National Research Council • National Science Teachers Association • American Association for the Advancement of Science • Achieve

  19. NGSS Components • Science and Engineering Practices • Crosscutting Concepts • Core ideas • Physical Science • Life Science • Earth and Space Science • Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science

  20. Science and Engineering Practices • Asking questions and defining problems • Developing and using models • Planning and carrying out investigations • Analyzing and interpreting data

  21. Science and Engineering Practices • Using mathematics and computational thinking • Constructing explanations and designing solutions • Engaging in written and oral argument from evidence • Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

  22. Crosscutting Concepts • Patterns • Cause and effect • Scale, proportion, and quantity • Systems and systems models • Energy and matter in systems • Structure and function • Stability and change of systems • Interdependence of science, engineering, and technology

  23. Key Shifts in Instruction • Teaching through expanded inquiry model • 8 practices • Inclusion of engineering and technology concepts • Fewer topics-greater integration among science domains • Integration of literacy and mathematics • Connections to real-world problems • Readiness for college and career

  24. Adoption Timeline • Under review • Expected release early 2013 • Assessments are not yet constructed

  25. Testing within the NGSS • Review what testing is like with NECAP • Interpretation of science experiments based upon drawings and descriptions •

  26. Performance-Based Portion of the Assessments • Given a bag of materials • Told to perform and activity • Observe what is happening • Diagram and label what is happening • Record the results • Make conclusions based upon results • Decide on the next steps for possible experimentation •

  27. NGSS Resource • National Research Council (2012). A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. The National Academy Press. • Next Generation Science Standards

  28. Common Core State Standards

  29. Common Core State Standards Purpose • To guide K-12 instruction to ensure that every student is college and career ready following high school graduation

  30. Who is involved in Common Core?

  31. New Standards Comparison Common Core Curriculum Standards • English Language Arts • Reading • Writing • Speaking & Listening • Language • Literacy in Science, Social Studies and Technical Subjects • Mathematics • 8 practices Next Generation Science Standards • Science and Engineering practices • Cross-cutting concepts • Core Ideas

  32. Commonalities: NGSS and Common Core Instruction • Rigorous preparation for college and career • Fewer topics, more depth • Integration across content areas • Constructivist teaching methods • Emphasis on students explaining and justifying thinking • Emphasis on student collaboration • Emphasis on real-world connections

  33. Key Shifts in ELA/Literacy • Literacy-building as a shared responsibility for all content area teachers • Emphasis on teaching reading of informational text • Emphasis on steadily increasing students' ability to understand more and more complex text over time • Integration of research skills across standards and grades • Emphasis on writing to argue, inform, and explain in the upper grades to prepare students for college-level writing

  34. Key Shifts in Mathematics • Fewer topics; more generalizing and linking of concepts • Well-aligned with the way high-achieving countries teach math • Emphasis on both conceptual understanding and procedural fluency starting in the early grades • More time to teach and reinforce core concepts from K-12 • Some concepts will now be taught later • Focus on mastery of complex concepts in higher math (e.g., algebra and geometry) via hands-on learning • Emphasis on mathematical modeling in the upper grades

  35. Common Core Resources •

  36. Common Core Assessments • PARCC Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers • SBAC Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium

  37. Who has PARCC?

  38. Who has SBAC?

  39. Assessment formats • All assessments will be delivered online via computer. • Include a mix of constructed response items, performance-based tasks, and computer-enhanced items. • Acombination of automated scoring and human scoring will be employed.

  40. Accessibility • Two consortiums received grants for the development of assessments accessible to all students • National Center and State Collaborative • • Dynamic Learning Maps •

  41. National Center and State Collaborative • 24 states involved • Goal: to build alternate assessments based upon alternate achievement standards for students with disabilities • To support all students in increasingly higher academic achievement in preparation for post high school options • Assessments will be released 2015

  42. Accessibility Issues with Testing • According to the NECAP Accommodation Handbook the following can be used by a student with a visual impairment • Can use an abacus • Ability to use a scribe • Provides Resources • APH • National Agenda • Source:

  43. Contact Tiffany A. Wild Margilee P. Hilson