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KPDS-ÜDS. 2012 İLKBAHAR. ÜDS SORU ANALİZİ. KPDS SORU ANALİZİ. A series of gas discoveries in recent years in the Western Desert of Egypt means that a range of new export projects must be developed ---- the country is to make full use of its new reserves. A) lest B) although C) after

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slide1

KPDS-ÜDS

2012 İLKBAHAR

slide4

A series of gas discoveries in recent years in the Western Desert of Egypt means that a range of new export projects must be developed ---- the country is to make full use of its new reserves.

A) lest B) although C) after

D) as if E) if

E) if

Must bir koşul cümlesini çağrıştırmaktadır ve 2. kısımda “is to” aynı şekilde “if” cümlesinde “will” anlamına gelmektedir.

slide5

----, while just 1.7 tonnes of corn yields the same

result.

A) A team of scientists has claimed that the

traditional methods of production in plastics are

extremely costly and have an adverse impact on

the environment

B) It has been announced that a company in China,

sponsored by the government, is planning to

harvest plastics from crops of corn

C) Eight tonnes of crude oil are currently needed to

create one tonne of polyol, which is an alcoholic

substance used in a number of plastics

D) Scientists are now using a new type of

microscope that lets them view internal

structures of materials in greater detail than ever

before

E) The device the company’s scientists use utilizes

X-ray analysis technology and reveals chemical

compositions of objects being studied

slide6

----, while just 1.7 tonnes of corn yields the same result.

Cümle tamamlama sorularında soru kökünde verilen sayısal ifadeler her zaman önemsememiz gereken ifadelerdir. Çoğunlukla tarihler üzerinde durulmasına rağmen bu defa 1.7 tonnes olarak bir ölçü birimi kullanılmış.Bu durumda şıklarda bu sayısal ifadeye uygun bir ifade aranması doğru olacaktır.

C) Eight tonnesof crude oil are currently needed to

create one tonne of polyol, which is an alcoholic

substance used in a number of plastics

slide7

Missions to the Moon’s previously unvisited

mountains and polar regions will aid the search for water, ----.

A) since the first crewed mission will be planned for

the far side of the Moon

B) whereby test landings are scheduled to begin in

2010

C) which is vital to any future lunar base to be set

up by NASA

D) even if the mission aims to land astronauts on

the surface of the Moon by 2015

E) even though dense clouds of interstellar dust

conceal the heart of our galaxy

slide8

Missions to the Moon’s previously unvisited

mountains and polar regions will aid the search for water, ----.

Cümle tamamla sorularında bir ismin “water” ardından özellikle bir relative pronoun aramak gerekir bu soruda da relative pronoun aradığımızda,

C) whichis vital to any future lunar base to be set

up by NASA

slide9

New radiocarbon dating of fossils suggests ----.

A) that mass extinctions of mammoths and wild

horses 10,000 years ago were caused by natural

climate shifts

B) whether humans were to blame for extensive

destruction in the natural world and also for the

pollution of the oceans

C) how scientists began to understand clearly what

dinosaurs ate and why they disappeared from

the face of the Earth

D) if an olive branch buried for thousands of years

in volcanic ash could have revealed the fate of

the great Minoan civilization on the Greek island

of Thera

E) when it was scientifically established that

dinosaurs belonged to a large group of reptiles

called archosauria

slide10

New radiocarbon dating of fossils suggests ----.

Daha önceki cümle tamamlama sorumuzda isimden

Sonra bir relative pronoun aramamız gerktiğinden

söz etmiştik bu soruda ise “suggest” bir fiildir ve

Ardından bir “noun clause” devam etmesi çok

uygun olacaktır ve “that” noun clause cümlemiz

için en uygunu olacaktır. Fiilimiz sorgulayan bir fiil

Olsaydı bu durumda soru kelimelerine ya da

“whether/if”’e gidilecekti.

A) thatmass extinctions of mammoths and wild

horses 10,000 years ago were caused by natural

climate shifts

slide11

The Africans who go abroad to work usually send

money back home to pay for their relatives’ medical care, education, and housing. Today, most African countries get the largest part of their foreign exchange earnings from such remittances. --- Without this subsidy, Africa’s dictators would have to face the political consequences of an angry population.

A) In Africa, foreign aid goes mostly to those

governments that have mismanaged their economies.

B) There are over three million Nigerians in the US

and another one million in Britain.

C) From a quarter to almost 50% of universityeducated

graduates from Ghana, Uganda, and Kenya leave their countries to work in the West.

D) Ironically, African citizens abroad subsidize state

corruption.

E) About three million middle-class Zimbabweans have migrated to South Africa since 1999.

slide12

The Africans who go abroad to work usually send money back home to pay for their relatives’ medical care, education, and housing. Today, most African countries get the largest part of their foreign exchange earnings from such remittances. --- Without this subsidy, Africa’s dictators would have to face the political consequences of an angry population.

Boşluktan sonra “without this subsidy” bizim cevabı armamız için gerekli yer olacaktır,özellikle this/these gibi kelimelere bakarak “refer” ettikleri kelime bulunmalıdır ancak burada zaten verilmiş olan “subsidy” işi kolaylaştırmaktadır.

D)Ironically, African citizens abroadsubsidizestate

corruption.Burada ayrıca African citizens ifadesi cümleler arasında genel/özel uyumunun devam ettiğini göstermektedir.

slide13

After more than 30 years without building a nuclear plant, US power companies are seeking licences for over 30 new reactors. In addition, more than 300 reactors have been proposed worldwide. Countries such as Egypt, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela have serious plans to build their first nuclear plant. ----

A) In other parts of the world, some 40 reactors are already under construction, though many have been underway for decades with no end in sight.

B) Annual emissions of greenhouse gases are expected to double by 2050, from a current 7 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide each year to more than 14 billion tonnes.

C) According to a recent report, nuclear power is a major solution to the West’s growing electricity needs, and increased nuclear use can substantially lower greenhouse gas emissions.

D) On the contrary, a country’s use of nuclear power has much to do with government intervention, whether through state loans or streamlined regulations.

E) Therefore, global electricity demand is estimated to nearly double by 2030, with nuclear power currently accounting for about 15 per cent of global use.

slide14

After more than 30 years without building a nuclear plant, US power companies are seeking licences for over 30 new reactors. In addition, more than 300 reactors have been proposed worldwide. Countries such as Egypt, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela have serious plans to build their first nuclear plant. ----

Son cümle genellikle bir toparlama cümlesi niteliğindedir.Son cümleden önce bir geçiş kelimesiyle farklı bir konuya geçilmişse bu cümlenin sonucu aranmaktadır aksi takdirde tüm paragrafın konusunu içerecek bir cevap gerekmektedir.

A) In other parts of the world, some 40 reactorsare already under construction, though many have been underway for decades with no end in sight.

slide15

For decades, China has been content to let the invisible hand of the market work its magic on the country’s economy. But there’s one area where the government wants to reassert state control: healthcare. ---- Today, nearly 40 per cent of the population can’t afford to see a doctor. The average hospital stay for a Chinese citizen costs nearly as much as an individual’s annual per capita income in the country. Healthcare grievances have been at the heart of thousands of organized protests countrywide in recent years.

A) Some hospitals have had to hire security personnel to protect medical staff from angry mobs.

B) By comparison, Japanese pay just 15 per cent of their medical spending out of pocket.

C) So the government has recently developed a strategy to provide affordable medical insurance to 90 per cent of its population by 2010.

D) In fact, the free market reforms in China were first initiated in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

E) The Chinese government has already met many of its economic goals and is now beginning to address scientific and technological development.

slide16

For decades, China has been content to let the invisible hand of the market work its magic on the country’s economy. But there’s one area where the government wants to reassert state control: healthcare. ---- Today, nearly 40 per cent of the population can’t afford to see a doctor. The average hospital stay for a Chinese citizen costs nearly as much as an individual’s annual per capita income in the country. Healthcare grievances have been at the heart of thousands of organized protests countrywide in recent years.

Sorularda sayısal ifadeler önemlidir demiştik burada da iki şık bulunuyor ancak genel-özel kuralına dikkat edersek C dogru olacaktır.

B) By comparison, Japanese pay just 15 per cent of their medical spending out of pocket.

C) So the government has recently developed a strategy to provide affordable medical insurance to 90 per cent of its population by 2010.

slide17

Turkey offers much for the naturalist, with rich marine ecosystems, abundant birdlife, and elusive larger mammals. Especially the rugged eastern provinces and also the regions with thick forests harbour a large variety of these mammals. ---- The tulip is perhaps the most famous of these. The great diversity of plants stems not only from the variety of habitats, which include arid plains as well as mountains and temperate woodlands, but also from Turkey’s position as a “biological watershed” at the crossroads of Europe and Asia.

A) There are huge tracts of unspoiled countryside, some of which have been set aside as national parks.

B) Unfortunately, Turkish wetlands are under threat from dams, drainage, pollution, and climatic change.

C) The country’s position on the migratory flyways makes it a paradise for birdwatchers.

D) The country is also floristically rich, with more than 11,000 plant species recorded.

E) In winter, the country’s lakes and wetlands hold thousands of wintering wildfowl.

slide18

Turkey offers much for the naturalist, with rich marine ecosystems, abundant birdlife, and elusive larger mammals. Especially the rugged eastern provinces and also the regions with thick forests harbour a large variety of these mammals. ---- The tulip is perhaps the most famous of these. The great diversity of plants stems not only from the variety of habitats, which include arid plains as well as mountains and temperate woodlands, but also from Turkey’s position as a “biological watershed” at the crossroads of Europe and Asia.

Boşluktan sonra “tulip” bitki ile ilgili bilgi verirken boşluktan önce hayvanlardan söz edildiğinden bir geçişe ihtiyaç olacaktır ve “also” ile bu D şıkkında vardır.

D) The country is also floristically rich, with more than 11,000 plant species recorded.

slide19

As the chairman of a committee, you must call the members to an unscheduled but urgent meeting. So you phone them each and, with your apologies, inform them about the meeting. You say:

A) I am wondering whether all the committee members will be available to attend a meeting later today.

B) This is your chairman calling. We are going to have a meeting, which I want you to attend without any excuse.

C) As a committee, we have to come together immediately. I am sorry about this, as it is contrary to our usual practice.

D) Our committee needs to meet as soon as possible. I am sure you have no objection whatsoever.

E) I am asking you and the other members to come to my office right away for a meeting. No one must be absent

slide20

As the chairman of a committee, you must call the members to an unscheduled but urgent meeting. So you phone them each and, with your apologies, inform them about the meeting. You say:

Bu tip sorularda verilmiş olan apology,certain,possible,sure gibi ifadeler önemlidir.

“b” çeldiricisinde de “excuse” bulunmaktadır ama “without” olumsuzlaştırmaktadır oysa “”c” şıkkında “sorry” karşılığı vermektedir.

B) This is your chairman calling. We are going to have a meeting, which I want you to attend without any excuse.

C) As a committee, we have to come together immediately. I am sorry about this, as it is contrary to our usual practice.

slide21

You are lecturing on the Industrial Revolution and

the economic changes it brought about in England in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.You conclude your lecture by saying:

A) So, to wrap up, the Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century and thereafter altered not only the foundations of the economy but also the very assumptions with which people approached economics.

B) Moreover, one can suggest that Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries had ample supplies of coal and a well-developed network of canals, all of which proved important for industrialization.

C) In fact, by the end of the 18th century and the early 19th century, London had become the leading centre for international trade and a headquarters for the transfer of raw materials, capital, and manufactured products throughout the world.

D) Actually, the Industrial Revolution began with dramatic technological leaps in a few industries towards the end of the 18th century and the early 19th century, the first of which was cotton textiles.

E) Undoubtedly, at the end of the 18th century and during the early decades of the 19th century, expanding networks of trade and finance in Britain created new markets for goods and new sources of raw materials.

slide22

You are lecturing on the Industrial Revolution and

the economic changes it brought about in England in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.You conclude your lecture by saying:

“wrap up” özetlemek demektir ve “conclude” ifadesi bize A şıkkını işaret etmektedir.Ancak kelime anlamı bilmesek dahi “Industrial Revolution “ ve economic”kelimeleri biza A şıkkını göstermektedir.“

A) So, to wrap up, the Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century and thereafter altered not only the foundations of the economy but also the very assumptions with which people approached economics.

slide23

Jane: What were you doing all day? I kept phoning but you were never in your office.

Neil:_____

Jane: Was that really essential?

Neil: It certainly was. Morale and the company spirit both have a bearing on productivity.

A)The morning was taken up with meetings. And there was a staff party in the afternoon that I had to attend.

B) I spend most of the day in the factory; we are reorganizing the assembly line.

C) I wasn’t out all that much, but I did have to go to the bank.

D) What did you want me for, anyway?

E) Meetings! Most of them related to the installation of the new boiler. I have doubts about the reliability of the contractors.

slide24

Jane: Whatwereyoudoingallday? I keptphoning but youwerenever in youroffice.

Neil:_____

Jane: Wasthatreallyessential?

Neil: Itcertainlywas. Morale andthecompanyspiritbothhave a bearing on productivity.

A) Themorningwastakenupwithmeetings. Andtherewas a staffparty in theafternoonthatI had toattend.

B) I spendmost of theday in thefactory; wearereorganizingtheassemblyline.

C) I wasn’toutallthatmuch, but I didhavetogotothe bank.

D) Whatdidyouwantmefor, anyway?

E) Meetings! Most of themrelatedtotheinstallation of thenewboiler. I havedoubtsaboutthereliability of thecontractors.

slide25

Patrick: Why are so insistent that we must find a framework of collective security that does not rely on nuclear deterrence?

Mark:_____

Patrick: Why is that?

Mark: Surely it’s obvious: they have no cities that can be bombed in reply and they are not focused on self-preservation.

A) I am convinced that reliance on nuclear weapons will be obsolete in the near future.

B) Because the very existence of nuclear weapons gives rise to pursuit of them.

C) Because we need to work towards global security.

D) Actually, I’m not: I don’t think it’s feasible.

E) Because the rise of terrorist groups makes this essential.

slide26

Patrick: Why are so insistent that we must find a framework of collective security that does not rely on nuclear deterrence?

Mark:_____

Patrick: Why is that?

Mark: Surely it’s obvious: they have no cities that can be bombed in reply and they are not focused on self-preservation.

A) I am convinced that reliance on nuclear weapons will be obsolete in the near future.

B) Because the very existence of nuclear weapons gives rise to pursuit of them.

C) Because we need to work towards global security.

D) Actually, I’m not: I don’t think it’s feasible.

E)Because the rise of terrorist groups makes this essential.

slide27

The very term “postcolonial” underlines the factthatcolonialism’s legacies have endured informer colonies even afterindependence.

A) As can be understood from the term“postcolonial,” the independence of formercolonies has been undermined by the

continuation of colonial practices.

B) Although former colonies have gained theirindependence, it is true that, as the term“postcolonial” itself indicates, they still feel the impact of colonialism.

C) What is meant by the term “postcolonial” is thatformer colonies, which are now independent,have failed to preserve their colonial institutions.

D) The fact that former colonies, which have allgained their independence, have got rid of theircolonial past is indicated by the term “postcolonial.”

E) Since the independence of former colonies has

enabled them to be aware of their colonial past,

this is best defined by the term “postcolonial.”

slide28

66. The very term “postcolonial” underlines the factthatcolonialism’s legacies have endured informer colonies even after independence.

A) As can be understood from the term“postcolonial,” the independence of formercolonies has been undermined by the

continuation of colonial practices.

B)Although former colonies have gained theirindependence, it is true that, as the term“postcolonial” itself indicates, they still feel the impact of colonialism.

C) What is meant by the term “postcolonial” is thatformer colonies, which are now independent,have failed to preserve their colonial institutions.

D) The fact that former colonies, which have allgained their independence, have got rid of theircolonial past is indicated by the term “postcolonial.”

E) Since the independence of former colonies has

enabled them to be aware of their colonial past,

this is best defined by the term “postcolonial.”

Cevap B seçeneğidir. “even after” “-den sonra bile” bize zıtlığı anlatmaktadır ve “underlines” yerine “indicates” kullanılmaktadır.

slide29

Thoughthe Germans were not the mostenthusiasticcolonialists, they were stillfascinated by other European powers’ imperial policies.

A) The imperial policies put into effect by otherEuropean powers exceedingly exasperated theGermans who were themselves utterly indifferent to colonialism.

B) The Germans did not cherish a keen interestincolonialism, but they were immensely interestedintheimperial policies pursued by other European powers.

C) Since colonialism did not appeal to the Germans,their interest in the imperial policies of otherEuropean powers was rather superficial.

D) The Germans, for whom colonialism did notmatter much, were fully aware of the imperialpolicies that other European powers were pursuing.

E) While the Germans refused to practisecolonialism, otherEuropean powers developedimperial policies that caught the German attention.

slide30

Though the Germans were not the mostenthusiasticcolonialists, they were stillfascinated by other European powers’ imperial policies.

A) The imperial policies put into effect by otherEuropean powers exceedingly exasperated theGermans who were themselves utterly indifferent to colonialism.

B) The Germans did not cherish a keen interest incolonialism, but they were immensely interestedin theimperial policies pursued by other European powers.

C) Since colonialism did not appeal to the Germans,their interest in the imperial policies of otherEuropean powers was rather superficial.

D) The Germans, for whom colonialism did notmatter much, were fully aware of the imperialpolicies that other European powers were pursuing.

E) While the Germans refused to practisecolonialism, otherEuropean powers developedimperial policies that caught the German attention.

Zıtlık anlatan 2 seçenek bulunmaktadır B ve E ancak enthusiastic ve fascinated karşılıkları E şıkkında bulunmamaktadır. Doğru cevap B olmalıdır.

slide31

PARAGRAFTA VERİLEN BİLGİYLE YETİNMEK,

  • ANAHTAR KELİMEYİ PARÇA İÇERİSİNDE BULUP CÜMLEYİ KUTU İÇERİSİNE ALMA,
  • SEÇENEKLERDEKİ ;

* ONLY, NEVER, ALWAYS, THE MOST,

GİBİ KELİMELERE DİKKAT!

slide32

We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He may have had his own writing ‘season’ perhaps in the quieter winter months, but never stopped acting, probably taking two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding roles in his plays, such as Old Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual playgoers, and many must have known Shakespeare and he must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent biographer has said , “that there might have been a complex, subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of his plays” .In spring 1613, he purchased his first property in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally have entertained other intentions for the property. It would certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share in the theatre company, altered his plans for it. He may not have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the end of that year. In 1614, he returned his hometown, Stratford- upon-Avon, and died there in 1616.

  • It is suggested in the passage that, when Shakespeare acted, __________.

A) he was always assigned the most crucial parts

B) the audiences were thrilled by his acting

C) the Globe Theatre was always crowded

D) he could spare very little time for his writing

E) the parts he played were mostly easy, unimportant ones

slide33

We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He may have had his own writing ‘season’ perhaps in the quieter winter months, but never stopped acting, probably taking two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding roles in his plays, such as Old Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual playgoers, and many must have known Shakespeare and he must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent biographer has said , “that there might have been a complex, subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of his plays” .In spring 1613, he purchased his first property in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally have entertained other intentions for the property. It would certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share in the theatre company, altered his plans for it. He may not have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the end of that year. In 1614, he returned his hometown, Stratford- upon-Avon, and died there in 1616.

  • It is suggested in the passage that, when Shakespeare acted, __________.

A) he was always assigned the most crucial parts

B) the audiences were thrilled by his acting

C) the Globe Theatre was always crowded

D) he could spare very little time for his writing

E) the parts he played were mostly easy, unimportant ones

slide34

We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He may have had his own writing ‘season’ perhaps in the quieter winter months, but never stopped acting, probably taking two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding roles in his plays, such as Old Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual playgoers, and many must have known Shakespeare and he must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent biographer has said , “that there might have been a complex, subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of his plays” .In spring 1613, he purchased his first property in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally have entertained other intentions for the property. It would certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share in the theatre company, altered his plans for it. He may not have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the end of that year. In 1614, he returned his hometown, Stratford- upon-Avon, and died there in 1616.

  • It is pointed out in the passage that, although Shakespeare had stopped writing plays by the end of 1613,______________

A) it seems likely that he continued to act a little longer

B) he sometimes revised some of his earlier plays

C) he wanted to keep his company intact

D) his company put pressure on him to continue writing

E) he started again on his return to Stratford- upon-Avon

slide35

We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He may have had his own writing ‘season’ perhaps in the quieter winter months, but never stopped acting, probably taking two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding roles in his plays, such as Old Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual playgoers, and many must have known Shakespeare and he must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent biographer has said , “that there might have been a complex, subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of his plays” .In spring 1613, he purchased his first property in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally have entertained other intentions for the property. It would certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share in the theatre company, altered his plans for it. He may not have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the end of that year. In 1614, he returned his hometown, Stratford- upon-Avon, and died there in 1616.

  • It is pointed out in the passage that, although Shakespeare had stopped writing plays by the end of 1613,______________
  • A) it seems likely that he continued to act a little longer

B) he sometimes revised some of his earlier plays

C) he wanted to keep his company intact

D) his company put pressure on him to continue writing

E) he started again on his return to Stratford- upon-Avon

slide36

We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He may have had his own writing ‘season’ perhaps in the quieter winter months, but never stopped acting, probably taking two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding roles in his plays, such as Old Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual playgoers, and many must have known Shakespeare and he must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent biographer has said , “that there might have been a complex, subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of his plays” .In spring 1613, he purchased his first property in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally have entertained other intentions for the property. It would certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share in the theatre company, altered his plans for it. He may not have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the end of that year. In 1614, he returned his hometown, Stratford- upon-Avon, and died there in 1616.

  • We understand from the passage that we have no evidence __________

A) as to what sort of parts Shakespeare played

B) to suggest that Shakespeare was popular in his day

C) as to whether or not Shakespeare actually did rent out his property

D) about when Shakespeare was writing his plays

E) that the destruction of the Globe had any serious impact on Shakespeare’s life

slide37

We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He may have had his own writing ‘season’ perhaps in the quieter winter months, but never stopped acting, probably taking two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding roles in his plays, such as Old Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual playgoers, and many must have known Shakespeare and he must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent biographer has said , “that there might have been a complex, subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of his plays” .In spring 1613, he purchased his first property in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally have entertained other intentions for the property. It would certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share in the theatre company, altered his plans for it. He may not have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the end of that year. In 1614, he returned his hometown, Stratford- upon-Avon, and died there in 1616.

  • We understand from the passage that we have no evidence __________

A) as to what sort of parts Shakespeare played

B) to suggest that Shakespeare was popular in his day

C) as to whether or not Shakespeare actually did rent out his property

D) about when Shakespeare was writing his plays

E) that the destruction of the Globe had any serious impact on Shakespeare’s life

slide38

We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He may have had his own writing ‘season’ perhaps in the quieter winter months, but never stopped acting, probably taking two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding roles in his plays, such as Old Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual playgoers, and many must have known Shakespeare and he must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent biographer has said , “that there might have been a complex, subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of his plays” .In spring 1613, he purchased his first property in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally have entertained other intentions for the property. It would certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share in the theatre company, altered his plans for it. He may not have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the end of that year. In 1614, he returned his hometown, Stratford- upon-Avon, and died there in 1616.

  • It is clear from the passage that the Globe Theatre __________

A) was partly owned by Shakespeare himself

B) was built on land that Shakespeare had bought

C) was particularly spacious so as to accommodate large audiences

D) was the most popular of the London theatres in Shakespeare’s time

E) was designed and built especially for the staging of Shakespeare’s plays

slide39

We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He may have had his own writing ‘season’ perhaps in the quieter winter months, but never stopped acting, probably taking two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding roles in his plays, such as Old Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual playgoers, and many must have known Shakespeare and he must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent biographer has said , “that there might have been a complex, subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of his plays” .In spring 1613, he purchased his first property in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally have entertained other intentions for the property. It would certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share in the theatre company, altered his plans for it. He may not have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the end of that year. In 1614, he returned his hometown, Stratford- upon-Avon, and died there in 1616.

  • It is clear from the passage that the Globe Theatre __________

A) was partly owned by Shakespeare himself

B) was built on land that Shakespeare had bought

C) was particularly spacious so as to accommodate large audiences

D) was the most popular of the London theatres in Shakespeare’s time

E) was designed and built especially for the staging of Shakespeare’s plays

slide40

In London’s theatres, tastes seem to be changing. Though audiences are not falling, that’s mostly thanks to the allure of musicals, not plays. The commercial London Theatres ran at 65% capacity in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available. But this disguises a big difference between musicals and plays. For the musicals, attendance averages 68% of capacity ; for plays attendance is somewhat lower, at 56%. So if a show doesn’t contain some singing and plenty of dancing, half the chairs are likely to remain empty. And in a business in which the costs are all fixed, a few more tickets sold can make all the difference. However, London’s subsidized theatres are doing unusually well. For example, at the National Theatre, which receives around €14 million in public money every year, attendance has been running at over 90% capacity for the past 20 months. That’s partly thanks to sponsorship and partly to aggressive programming.

According to the passage, public interest in London’s theatres ________.

A) reflects the quality of each production

B) has steadily increased over recent years

C) has shifted away from straight plays

D) is a good indication of the decline in aesthetic taste

E) largely focuses on the activities of National Theatre

slide41

In London’s theatres, tastesseem to be changing. Though audiences are not falling, that’s mostly thanks to the allure of musicals, not plays. The commercial London Theatres ran at 65% capacity in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available. But this disguises a big difference between musicals and plays. For the musicals, attendance averages 68% of capacity ; for plays attendance is somewhat lower, at 56%. So if a show doesn’t contain some singing and plenty of dancing, half the chairs are likely to remain empty. And in a business in which the costs are all fixed, a few more tickets sold can make all the difference. However, London’s subsidized theatres are doing unusually well. For example, at the National Theatre, which receives around €14 million in public money every year, attendance has been running at over 90% capacity for the past 20 months. That’s partly thanks to sponsorship and partly to aggressive programming.

According to the passage, public interest in London’s theatres ________.

A) reflects the quality of each production

B) has steadily increased over recent years

C) has shifted away from straight plays

D) is a good indication of the decline in aesthetic taste

E) largely focuses on the activities of National Theatre

slide42

In London’s theatres, tastes seem to be changing. Though audiences are not falling, that’s mostly thanks to the allure of musicals, not plays. The commercial London Theatres ran at 65% capacity in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available. But this disguises a big difference between musicals and plays. For the musicals, attendance averages 68% of capacity ; for plays attendance is somewhat lower, at 56%. So if a show doesn’t contain some singing and plenty of dancing, half the chairs are likely to remain empty. And in a business in which the costs are all fixed, a few more tickets sold can make all the difference. However, London’s subsidized theatres are doing unusually well. For example, at the National Theatre, which receives around €14 million in public money every year, attendance has been running at over 90% capacity for the past 20 months. That’s partly thanks to sponsorship and partly to aggressive programming.

We understand from the passage that the subsidized theatres in London_______.

A) are often criticized for wasting public money.

B) manage to make a profit though their audiences are small

C) have been specializing in musicals for quite some time

D) have been drawing large audiences for nearly two years.

E) are more concerned about attendance than about the quality of performance

slide43

In London’s theatres, tastes seem to be changing. Though audiences are not falling, that’s mostly thanks to the allure of musicals, not plays. The commercial London Theatres ran at 65% capacity in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available. But this disguises a big difference between musicals and plays. For the musicals, attendance averages 68% of capacity ; for plays attendance is somewhat lower, at 56%. So if a show doesn’t contain some singing and plenty of dancing, half the chairs are likely to remain empty. And in a business in which the costs are all fixed, a few more tickets sold can make all the difference. However, London’s subsidized theatres are doing unusually well. For example, at the National Theatre, which receives around €14 million in public money every year, attendance has been running at over 90% capacity for the past 20 months. That’s partly thanks to sponsorship and partly to aggressive programming.

We understand from the passage that the subsidizedtheatres in London_______.

A) are often criticized for wasting public money.

B) manage to make a profit though their audiences are small

C) have been specializing in musicals for quite some time

D)have been drawing large audiences for nearly two years.

E) are more concerned about attendance than about the quality of performance

slide44

In London’s theatres, tastes seem to be changing. Though audiences are not falling, that’s mostly thanks to the allure of musicals, not plays. The commercial London Theatres ran at 65% capacity in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available. But this disguises a big difference between musicals and plays. For the musicals, attendance averages 68% of capacity ; for plays attendance is somewhat lower, at 56%. So if a show doesn’t contain some singing and plenty of dancing, half the chairs are likely to remain empty. And in a business in which the costs are all fixed, a few more tickets sold can make all the difference. However, London’s subsidized theatres are doing unusually well. For example, at the National Theatre, which receives around €14 million in public money every year, attendance has been running at over 90% capacity for the past 20 months. That’s partly thanks to sponsorship and partly to aggressive programming.

It is clear from the passage that the musicals in London theatres ___________.

A) depends largely on private sponsorship for production costs

B) can only run for a limited period of time

C) are not appreciated by serious theatre audiences

D) cost less than straight plays do

E) are popular on account of the singing and dancing in them

slide45

In London’s theatres, tastes seem to be changing. Though audiences are not falling, that’s mostly thanks to the allure of musicals, not plays. The commercial London Theatres ran at 65% capacity in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available. But this disguises a big difference between musicals and plays. For the musicals, attendance averages 68% of capacity ; for plays attendance is somewhat lower, at 56%. So if a show doesn’t contain some singing and plenty of dancing, half the chairs are likely to remain empty. And in a business in which the costs are all fixed, a few more tickets sold can make all the difference. However, London’s subsidized theatres are doing unusually well. For example, at the National Theatre, which receives around €14 million in public money every year, attendance has been running at over 90% capacity for the past 20 months. That’s partly thanks to sponsorship and partly to aggressive programming.

It is clear from the passage that the musicals in London theatres ___________.

A) depends largely on privatesponsorshipfor production costs

B) can only run for a limited period of time

C) are not appreciated by serious theatre audiences

D) cost less than straight plays do

E)are popular on account of the singing and dancing in them

slide46

Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the “jumping-off point” from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia.

It is clear from the passage that the European discovery and conquest of the Canary Islands in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries ----.

A) actually had no commercial and maritime significance, but became the major cause of rivalry between Portugal and Spain

B) strategically paved the way for further explorations along coastal West Africa and across the Atlantic Ocean

C) could have been prevented if the natives had been politically united to resist conversion and colonization

D) caused so much excitement across Europe that especially Italian merchants were keen to use the islands as their commercial base

E) had an adverse impact on the Netherlands’ maritime trade with England and other countries in northern Europe

slide47

Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the “jumping-off point” from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia.

It is clear from the passage that the European discovery and conquest of the Canary Islands in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries ----.

A) actually had no commercial and maritime significance, but became the major cause of rivalry between Portugal and Spain

B) strategically paved the way for further explorations along coastal West Africa and across the Atlantic Ocean

C) could have been prevented if the natives had been politically united to resist conversion and colonization

D) caused so much excitement across Europe that especially Italian merchants were keen to use the islands as their commercial base

E) had an adverse impact on the Netherlands’ maritime trade with England and other countries in northern Europe

slide48

Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the “jumping-off point” from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia.

As suggested in the passage, in medieval Europe before 1270, ----.

A) Spanish and Portuguese sailors had attempted to explore the west coast of Africa and enslave the natives

B) only Italian merchants had had the monopoly to import wool from England and the Netherlands

C) some daring attempts had been made to conquer and colonize the Canaries and the

Azores

D) there had been two major zones for maritime trade: the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic

E) there had been continual efforts especially by the Portuguese to convert West African natives toChristianity

slide49

Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the “jumping-off point” from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia.

As suggested in the passage, in medieval Europe before 1270, ----.

A) Spanish and Portuguese sailors had attempted to explore the west coast of Africa and enslave the natives

B) only Italian merchants had had the monopoly to import wool from England and the Netherlands

C) some daring attempts had been made to conquer and colonize the Canaries and the

Azores

D) there had been two major zones for maritime trade: the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic

E) there had been continual efforts especially by the Portuguese to convert West African natives toChristianity

slide50

Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the “jumping-off point” from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia.

It is asserted in the passage that, in the late thirteenth century, ----.

A) Italian merchants were first able to carry their Mediterranean trade into England and the Netherlands

B) the Strait of Gibraltar gained so much strategic importance that it became a territorial issue between Spain and Portugal

C) the Europeans soon realized that there was agreat deal of profit to be made by slave trade across the Atlantic

D) both England and the Netherlands emerged as the only major colonizing powers in the North Atlantic

E) the Italians absolutely dominated the trade in the Mediterranean and strongly opposed other nations’ attempts to benefit from it

slide51

Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the “jumping-off point” from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia.

It is asserted in the passage that, in the late thirteenth century, ----.

A) Italian merchants were first able to carry their Mediterranean trade into England and the Netherlands

B) the Strait of Gibraltar gained so much strategic importance that it became a territorial issue between Spain and Portugal

C) the Europeans soon realized that there was agreat deal of profit to be made by slave trade across the Atlantic

D) both England and the Netherlands emerged as the only major colonizing powers in the North Atlantic

E) the Italians absolutely dominated the trade in the Mediterranean and strongly opposed other nations’ attempts to benefit from it

slide52

Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the “jumping-off point” from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia.

As stated in the passage, the Canary Islands ----.

A) were more densely populated than the Azores, which played no part in transatlantic trade

B) had already been Christianized before they were discovered and colonized

C) were not so important as the Azores in the increase of trade along the West African coast

D) did not interest Christopher Columbus at all in his voyages across the Atlantic

E) were subjected to colonization soon after they were discovered by the Genoese

slide53

Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the “jumping-off point” from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia.

As stated in the passage, the Canary Islands ----.

A) were more densely populated than the Azores, which played no part in transatlantic trade

B) had already been Christianized before they were discovered and colonized

C) were not so important as the Azores in the increase of trade along the West African coast

D) did not interest Christopher Columbus at all in his voyages across the Atlantic

E)were subjected to colonization soon after they were discovered by the Genoese

slide54

Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the “jumping-off point” from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia.

As can be inferred from the passage, Christopher Columbus ----.

A) hoped that his westward voyage across the Atlantic would ultimately take him to Asia

B) learned much from Genoese sailors about the locations of the Canaries and the Azores

C) had taken part earlier in Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa

D) paid little attention to the strategic and economic importance of the Canary Islands

E) always dreamed of completely controlling all the maritime commerce with Asia

slide55

Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the “jumping-off point” from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia.

  • As can be inferred from the passage, Christopher Columbus ----.
    • A) hoped that his westward voyage across the Atlantic would ultimately take him to Asia
  • B) learned much from Genoese sailors about the locations of the Canaries and the Azores
  • C) had taken part earlier in Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa
  • D) paid little attention to the strategic and economic importance of the Canary Islands
  • E) always dreamed of completely controlling all the maritime commerce with Asia
slide56

Ever since Lord Curzon, a member of Britain’s World War I cabinet, (16)---- that the Allies “had floated to victory on a sea of oil,” major industrialized powers have sought oil security. For instance, an imperialist surge by Japan to secure oil supplies in East Asia resulted (17)---- the fateful attack on Pearl Harbour. The desire to control Middle East oil pushed the Soviet Union into Afghanistan, and led to Saddam Hussein’s (18)---- of Kuwait. And in his 1980 State of

  • the Union speech, US President Jimmy Carter made clear America’s own oil-security policy (19)---- he described what would become known as the Carter Doctrine: “Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as
  • an assault on the (20)---- interests of the United States of America.”
  • 16.
  • declares B) declared C) has declared
  • D) would have declared E) would declare
  • 17.
  • A) in B) within C) on
  • D) below E) of
slide57

Ever since Lord Curzon, a member of Britain’s World War I cabinet, (16)---- that the Allies “had floated to victory on a sea of oil,” major industrialized powers have sought oil security. For instance, an imperialist surge by Japan to secure oil supplies in East Asia resulted (17)---- the fateful attack on Pearl Harbour. The desire to control Middle East oil pushed the Soviet Union into Afghanistan, and led to Saddam Hussein’s (18)---- of Kuwait. And in his 1980 State of

  • the Union speech, US President Jimmy Carter made clear America’s own oil-security policy (19)---- he described what would become known as the Carter Doctrine: “Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as
  • an assault on the (20)---- interests of the United States of America.”
  • 16.
  • declares B) declared C) has declared
  • D) would have declared E) would declare
  • 17.
  • A) in(result in=sonuçlanmak) B) within C) on
  • D) below E) of
slide58

Ever since Lord Curzon, a member of Britain’s World War I cabinet, (16)---- that the Allies “had floated to victory on a sea of oil,” major industrialized powers have sought oil security. For instance, an imperialist surge by Japan to secure oil supplies in East Asia resulted (17)---- the fateful attack on Pearl Harbour. The desire to control Middle East oil pushed the Soviet Union into Afghanistan, and led to Saddam Hussein’s (18)---- of Kuwait. And in his 1980 State of

the Union speech, US President Jimmy Carter made clear America’s own oil-security policy (19)---- he described what would become known as the Carter Doctrine: “Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as

an assault on the (20)---- interests of the United States of America.”

18.

A) purchase B) exclusion C) invasion

D) negotiation E) illusion

19.

A) in case B) although C) even if

D) when E) so far as

slide59

Ever since Lord Curzon, a member of Britain’s World War I cabinet, (16)---- that the Allies “had floated to victory on a sea of oil,” major industrialized powers have sought oil security. For instance, an imperialist surge by Japan to secure oil supplies in East Asia resulted (17)---- the fateful attack on Pearl Harbour. The desire to control Middle East oil pushed the Soviet Union into Afghanistan, and led to Saddam Hussein’s (18)---- of Kuwait. And in his 1980 State of the Union speech, US President Jimmy Carter made clear America’s own oil-security policy (19)---- he described what would become known as the Carter Doctrine: “Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as

an assault on the (20)---- interests of the United States of America.”

18.

A) purchase B) exclusion C) invasion

D) negotiation E) illusion

19.

A) in case B) although C) even if

D) when E) so far as(kadarıyla)

slide60

Ever since Lord Curzon, a member of Britain’s World War I cabinet, (16)---- that the Allies “had floated to victory on a sea of oil,” major industrialized powers have sought oil security. For instance, an imperialist surge by Japan to secure oil supplies in East Asia resulted (17)---- the fateful attack on Pearl Harbour. The desire to control Middle East oil pushed the Soviet Union into Afghanistan, and led to Saddam Hussein’s (18)---- of Kuwait. And in his 1980 State of the Union speech, US President Jimmy Carter made clear America’s own oil-security policy (19)---- he described what would become known as the Carter Doctrine: “Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as

an assault on the (20)---- interests of the United States of America.”

18.

A) purchase B) exclusion C) invasion

D) negotiation E) illusion

19.

A) in case B) although C) even if

D) when E) so far as(kadarıyla)

slide61

Ever since Lord Curzon, a member of Britain’s World War I cabinet, (16)---- that the Allies “had floated to victory on a sea of oil,” major industrialized powers have sought oil security. For instance, an imperialist surge by Japan to secure oil supplies in East Asia resulted (17)---- the fateful attack on Pearl Harbour. The desire to control Middle East oil pushed the Soviet Union into Afghanistan, and led to Saddam Hussein’s (18)---- of Kuwait. And in his 1980 State of the Union speech, US President Jimmy Carter made clear America’s own oil-security policy (19)---- he described what would become known as the Carter Doctrine: “Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the (20)---- interests of the United States of America.”

  • interest=çıkar
      • A) tedious (can sıkıcı/usandırıcı)
  • B) irrelevant(ilgisiz,alakasız)
  • C) redundant(luzumsuz,aqşırı)
  • D) vague (anlaşılmaz,muğlak)
  • E) vital (hayati)=crucial
slide62

Ever since Lord Curzon, a member of Britain’s World War I cabinet, (16)---- that the Allies “had floated to victory on a sea of oil,” major industrialized powers have sought oil security. For instance, an imperialist surge by Japan to secure oil supplies in East Asia resulted (17)---- the fateful attack on Pearl Harbour. The desire to control Middle East oil pushed the Soviet Union into Afghanistan, and led to Saddam Hussein’s (18)---- of Kuwait. And in his 1980 State of the Union speech, US President Jimmy Carter made clear America’s own oil-security policy (19)---- he described what would become known as the Carter Doctrine: “Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the (20)---- interests of the United States of America.”

  • interest=çıkar
      • A) tedious (can sıkıcı/usandırıcı)
  • B) irrelevant(ilgisiz,alakasız)
  • C) redundant(luzumsuz,aqşırı)
  • D) vague (anlaşılmaz,muğlak)
  • E) vital (hayati)=crucial