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An Interactive Background Blurring Mechanism and Its Applications. NTU CSIE Yan Chih -Yu Advisor: Wu Ja -Ling, Ph.D. Outline. Introduction Related Work Method Object Segmentation Depth Map Generation Image Defocus Experimental Result Applications Conclusion. Introduction.

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an interactive background blurring mechanism and its applications

An Interactive Background Blurring Mechanism and Its Applications

NTU CSIE

Yan Chih-Yu

Advisor: Wu Ja-Ling, Ph.D.

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Related Work
  • Method
    • Object Segmentation
    • Depth Map Generation
    • Image Defocus
  • Experimental Result
  • Applications
  • Conclusion
introduction
Introduction
  • Depth of field
    • Circle of confusion

Photo plane

Real world

introduction1
Introduction
  • Depth of field
    • Circle of confusion

Photo plane

Out of focus

Real light

Circle of Confusion

introduction2
Introduction
  • Depth of field

Focus plane

Photo plane

Out of focus

– blur range

Real light

Depth of field

Circle of Confusion

- Readability range

introduction3
Introduction
  • Shallow focus

Photo plane

Real world

introduction4
Introduction
  • Shallow focus
    • Highlight the subject by softening background diffusion

Shallow focus

by DSLR

NIKON D90(2008)

Deep focus

by DC

NIKON E4300 (2003)

method

Depth Map Generation

Object Segmentation

Applications

Image Defocus

Perspective Box

Lazy Snapping

Camera Settings

Pop-up Card

Alpha Matting

Defocus Blur

Face Detection

Privacy Preserving

Photo Browser

Method
method1
Method

User Stroke

User Stroke

Resize to 20%

Resize to 20%

  • Segment
    • Lazy snapping
    • Mean shift
    • Alpha matting
    • Face detection

Mean shift

Mean shift

Do hard graph cut by lazy snapping

Do hard graph cut by lazy snapping

Segmentation tri-Map

Segmentation alpha Map

Lazy Snapping. ACM Trans. On Graphics 2004.

Mean Shift: A Robust Approach Toward Feature Space Analysis. PAMI 2002.

A Bayesian Approach to Digital Matting. CVPR 2001.

method2
Method

Perspective Box

Perspective Box

Pop-up card

Pop-up card

  • Depth map
    • Perspective Box
      • Vanish point
      • Rear wall

Normal vector

Normal vector

Depth Map

Depth Map

Tour Into the Picture: Using a spidery mesh user interface to make animation from a single image. SIGGRAPH 1997

method3
Method

Perspective Box

Pop-up card

Pop-up card

  • Depth map
    • Pop-up card

Normal vector

Normal vector

Depth Map

Depth Map

method4
Method

Perspective Box

Pop-up card

  • Depth map
    • Normal vector

Normal vector

Normal vector

Depth Map

Depth Map

method5

(a)

(b)

ub

vb

ub

vb

b

b

d

d

u

v

u

v

Method

Depth Map

Segment Map

Camera setting

  • Image defocus
    • Blur circle diameter

Aperture size

Focal length of the lens

Distance of focus

Blur circle diameter

method6
Method
  • Defocus blur
    • bokeh
method7
Method
  • Defocus blur
method8
Method
  • Near-by object case

Focus on the flower

Focus on the flower

method9
Method

Blur circle diameter

Objects in front of the focus

Objects behind

the focus

  • Near-by object case

Blur shape as alpha map

Text synthesis inpainting

Defocus Blur

Defocus Blur

Interpolation by alpha map

Shallow focus image

experimental result 1
Experimental Result 1
  • Defocus blur method proposed in the system comparing with other blur filter results

Deep focus

Shallow focus

experimental result 11
Experimental Result 1
  • Defocus blur method proposed in the system comparing with other blur filter results

Gaussian blur

Defocus blur

Defocus blur + Bokeh

experimental result 13
Experimental Result 1

Original photograph

  • Defocus blur method proposed in the system comparing with other blur filter results

Gaussian blur

Defocus blur

Defocus blur + Bokeh

experimental result 2
Experimental Result 2
  • with / without depth variation in the background

Real photograph taken by DSLR

experimental result 21
Experimental Result 2
  • with / without depth variation in the background

Depth variation

Original photograph

Result after post-processing

Depth fixed

experimental result 3
Experimental Result 3
  • Near-by object case

Focus on the flower

Focus on the flower

experimental result 31
Experimental Result 3
  • Near-by object case

Interpolation result

Without inpainting

experimental result 4
Experimental Result 4
  • Comparing with Photoshop

Original image

Photoshop (1 Hour)

Our system (3~5min)

applications image transition at photo browser2
Applications - Image Transition at Photo Browser

Concatenate two unrelated images

conclusion
Conclusion
  • We proposed an interactive refocusing tool for background blurring
    • Simple user hint
    • Defocus blur kernel
    • Concatenate two related picture
  • Future work
    • concatenate two or more unrelated pictures
      • Color based image retrieval technique
experimental result 14
Experimental Result 1
  • Defocus blur method proposed in the system comparing with other blur filter results

Deep focus

Shallow focus

Difference

experimental result 15
Experimental Result 1
  • Defocus blur method proposed in the system comparing with other blur filter results

Defocus blur

PSNR:22.79

Gaussian blur

PSNR:20.34

Shallow focus

Difference

slide39

END

THANK YOU