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Swine Management and Industry. Animal Science Level 2. Unit Map: Follow Along in your packet. WHAT ARE YOU LEARNING? AS.06.02 Basic: Recognize, Identify, and Evaluate the effects of disease and parasites in animals AS.03.01 : ID breeds and species that are economically important.

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Swine management and industry

Swine Management and Industry

Animal Science Level 2

Unit map follow along in your packet
Unit Map: Follow Along in your packet


AS.06.02 Basic: Recognize, Identify, and Evaluate the effects of disease and parasites in animals

AS.03.01: ID breeds and species that are economically important

Know understand do
Know Understand Do!


Types of swine breeds

Basic Care Requirements

Industry Standards


  • Graphic Organizer of Swine Breeds

  • Summarize care practices

  • Analyze disease effects on Animals


  • Defining Characteristics of swine breeds

  • Proper care and disease prevention

  • Physiology of swine

Key learning swine management and industry
Key Learning: Swine Management and Industry

Unit EQ: Why is the swine industry “under appreciated” ?

Concept : Types

Lesson EQ:

How are swine breeds defined?


Swine Index



Concept : Industry Practices

Lesson EQ:

How is the swine industry efficient?


Farrow – to- Finish



Concept : Management and Care

Lesson EQ:

How are swine managed?




Gilt, Boar

Swine management and industry1

Swine Management and Industry

Animal Science Level 2

Breeds, Types, and Their Purposes

Warm up
Warm Up

  • Where does this product come from?

Essential question
Essential Question

  • How are swine breeds defined?

American landrace
American Landrace

  • Developed around 1895

  • Long body length

  • Ears large and drooping

  • Sows noted for good milk production


  • Developed in England

  • Came to U.S. in 1823

  • Medium size hog

  • Erect ears, short snout

  • 6 white points

Chester white
Chester White

  • Developed in PA.

  • Drooped ears

  • Known for mothering ability


  • Developed in eastern U.S.

  • Drooped ears

  • Red in color

  • One of the most popular breeds in U.S.


  • Developed in England

  • Erect ears

  • White band circling the body

  • Know for lean meat

Poland china
Poland China

  • Developed in Ohio

  • Black with six white points

  • Drooping ears

  • One of the larger breeds of hogs

  • Used in cross breeding programs

Spotted breed
Spotted Breed

  • Developed in Indiana

  • At least 20% of body must be either black or white

  • First known as the Spotted Poland China


  • Originated in England

  • Brought to U.S. in 1882

  • Red in color

  • Lean meat

  • Excellent mothering ability


  • Developed in England

  • Came to U.S. in 1800s

  • Erect ears

  • Sometimes has black freckles

Vietnamese potbelly
Vietnamese Potbelly

  • Developed from a dwarf swine breed from Vietnam in the 1960s

  • Brought to U.S from Canada in 1986

  • Full grown potbellied pigs weigh an average of 70-150 lb.

  • Utilized as a pet

Picking the perfect pig major categories
Picking the Perfect Pig: Major Categories

  • I. Visual appraisal

  • II. Production testing

  • III. Pedigree evaluation

Visual appraisal
Visual Appraisal

  • Parts of the Hog (fill in your worksheet)

Visual appraisal1
Visual Appraisal

1. Look at confirmation

2. Structural soundness of feet and legs- NPPC scoring system

3. Size and scale- weigh 200 at 6months,

4. Health and vigor

Visual appraisal2
Visual Appraisal

  • NPPC scoring system

    • Unsound- Obvious restriction of movement

    • Intermediate- Structural condition is not serious enough to create risk in movement

    • Sound- free of major or minor structural weakness

Ii swine performance data
II. Swine Performance data

  • Based on:

    • Sow productivity,

    • growth rate,

    • feed efficiency and

    • carcass merit


  • % rate that a trait/characteristic will be passed on to offspring

  • Low heritability means it is unlikely that trait will be passed on

  • High Heritability means that trait is easily passed on to each generation

  • Why do we care?

    • Heritability ensures we receive desired traits from generation to generation

A sow is productive if
A sow is productive if?

Prolific- min 8/9 offspring

2.5 to 4 lb birth wt.

21 day litter wt= milking ability

Sow index- how good she is compared to her peers (contemp. group)

Lets do the math sow index 100 6 5 l l 1 0 w w
Lets do the mathSow index:= 100+6.5(L-l)+1.0(W-w)

L= # piglets born alive

l= avg. # piglets born alive for contemp group

W= 21 day weight for individual

w= 21 day weight for contemp group

B growth weight
b. growth weight

  • Number of days required to reach a specific weightUsually 230 pounds

C feed efficiency
c. Feed efficiency

  • amount of weight gained per amount of food eaten

D carcass merit
d. Carcass merit

  • What are the types of Hogs?Primary Lean Cuts = hams, loins, picnics, Boston ButtsMeat Type Hog: more than half the weight of a Number 1 animal is Primary Lean Cuts(PLC)

  • Bacon Type Hog: less than 1/2 is PLC–      large litter size–      little value in U.S. except to increase litter size

D carcass merit1
d. Carcass merit

  • USDA grades 1,2,3,4, UtilityBased on yield of lean cuts: Backfat over last rib Muscling1 is good and Utility is undesirable

What it comes down to
What it comes down to:

  • Hog Selection

  • U Feed Conversion Rate: pounds of feed needed to make a pound of hog

  • – no more than 4 lbs of feed per 1 lb of hog

  • U Minimum Litter Size = 9

  • U First Litter should have a combined pig wt at 21 days of 95 lbs or more

  • –      110 lbs for a mature sow

Fun facts did you know
Fun Facts: Did you know

  • Uncle Sam was a New York pork packer who sent barrels of Pork to troops in the War of 1812 stamped U.S.

  • Living High on the Hog came about because the higher rank you were in the army the better cut of pork you got.

  • Heaviest Hog ever: was a Poland China named Big Bill weighing 2,552 lbs.


  • Most Productive Piggie Worksheet

    • Calculators and extra paper Ready!

Swine management and industry2

Swine Management and Industry

Animal Science Level 2

Management Systems

Warm up1
Warm up

  • List a few different management type systems we have previously discussed…

  • Would they work for swine?

    • Why or why not?

Essential question1
Essential Question

  • How are swine managed?


  • Efficient use of resources is the key to profitability

  • To remain competitive swine producers MUST select breeding stock that will remain lean and feed efficiently

Factors that affect profitability
Factors That Affect Profitability

  • Number of pigs weaned per sow

    • Minimum goal for producers should be 21-22 pigs per year for each breeding female

    • Females should be bred and managed to produce a minimums of 2.3 litters during each 12 month period

  • Feed efficiency

    • feed wastage should be considered and controlled


  • Purebred

  • Commercial

    • Feeder pig production

    • Buying and finishing feeder pigs

    • Complete sow and litter systems

  • Swine production can also be classified according to the type of housing used

    • Pasture, combination pasture and low-investment housing, high-investment total confinement

Pasture management
Pasture Management

  • Farrowing a smaller number of sows per year

  • Requires enough pasture to be able to rotate pasture to reduce disease and parasite problems

  • Farrowing only once or twice a year

  • Low investment in building

Confinement management
Confinement Management

  • High level of mechanization to reduce labor requirements

  • High investment in buildings and equipment

  • Multiple farrowings per year with a large number of hogs raised

  • High level of management ability needed

  • High degree of control over feeding operation

  • Better year-round working conditions

  • Stringent disease and parasite control program

  • Use of very little priced land

Purebred production
Purebred Production

  • Specialized

  • Make up less than 1% of the total hogs raised

  • Produce foundation stock used in commercial production

  • Must be excellent managers

  • Higher investment in labor and record keeping

  • Must keep accurate records

  • Must spend a great deal of time advertising, showing and promoting swine breeds


  • Means used to produce most of the pork produced in the United States

  • Use crossbreeding

    • Often cross purebred boars onto crossbred sows

  • Good management is necessary

Feeder pig production
Feeder Pig Production

  • Produces pigs that are sold to feeders who feed them to market weights

  • Producer has a herd of breeding sows

  • Baby pigs are taken care of until they reach weaning weight

  • A high producing herd is required

    • An average of 14-16 pigs marketed per sow is required to break even

  • Goal is to raise uniform groups of feeder pigs for sale

  • Health problems MUST be prevented or carefully treated

  • Generally requires only small investments

  • Farrowing needs to be scheduled to have a steady supply of feeder pigs for sale

  • Requires less total feed

Buying and finishing feeder pigs
Buying and Finishing Feeder Pigs

  • Operator buys feeder pigs and raises them to market weight

  • Lest investment and managerial ability

  • Possible to feed pigs on pasture or with limited facilities

  • Trend is towards investing in more confinement systems

    • Cost are higher with this operation

Buying and finishing feeder pigs1
Buying and Finishing Feeder Pigs

  • Requires higher investment to purchase pigs

  • Well adapted to producers who have large amounts of grain for feed

  • Requires less labor

  • Disadvantages

    • Health problems

    • Variation in market prices

      • It is a fairly high risk that there will be no profit made

Complete sow and litter system
Complete Sow and Litter System

  • Most common method of production

  • Involves

    • Breeding herd of sows

    • Farrowing pigs

    • Caring for and feeding the pigs to market weight

  • Investments

    • Can be low for pasture systems

    • High for confinement systems and facilities

  • Trend is toward more confinement systems with larger numbers of sows being kept in the producing herd

Complete sow and litter system1
Complete Sow and Litter System

  • Confinement permits spreading the production and marketing of pigs more evenly through the years

    • This results in an increased potential for profit

  • Labor, management and investment requirements vary considerably

Pork quality assurance program pqa
Pork Quality Assurance Program (PQA)

  • Implemented in 1989 by the National Pork Producers Council

  • Management education program with major emphasis on the swine herd health program

  • Anyone who raises pork can take part

  • Just like the Beef Check-Off

Swine management and industry

  • 1st step—review of management practices, especially focusing on the use and handling of animal health products

  • Series of good management practices are reviewed and a plan is developed for needed improvements

  • Final step—producers plans are reviewed and verified by a verifier

    • The verifier can be a vet, an extension specialist, or agricultural education instructor

Activity break
Activity Break

  • Draw a representation of each type of swine management systems discussed in class

Pre breeding management
Pre-breeding Management

  • Must decide on a breeding system

    • Crossbreeding hogs for slaughter is recommended

  • Crossbred pigs generally grow faster and use feed more efficiently

  • Sows have larger litters and are better mothers

Multiple farrowing
Multiple Farrowing

  • Arranging the breeding program so that groups of sows farrow at regular intervals throughout the year

  • Usually results in a higher average price for hogs on a yearly basis

  • Chances of selling at a better prices are increased

  • Income is spread more evenly through the year

    • This makes more efficient use of facilities

    • Reduces the investment per pig raised

  • Year round labor supply is required as well

Replacement gilts
Replacement Gilts

  • Select at 4-5 months of age

  • Separate from finishing hogs and feed separately

  • Worm gilts and sows before first breeding

  • Spray for external parasites


  • Purchase at least 45-60 days before use

  • Buy only from healthy, purebred herds with good performance records

  • Isolate the boar when he is first brought to the farm to help prevent disease

  • Treat for internal and external parasites

  • Semen test

  • Test breed on a few market gilts to ensure the boar will breed


  • Age determines the number of time a boar can mate per day or week

  • Mating boars with too many females in a short period of time decreases the boars ability to service

Increasing conception and litter size
Increasing conception and litter size

  • Can be done by using more than one boar on each female

  • This is easier when hand-mating or using artificial insemination

  • Can also be accomplished with pen breeding

    • Rotate the boars once a day between pens

Artificial insemination
Artificial Insemination

  • Not widely used in the past

  • Mostly only by the purebred producers

  • Improvements in technology are trending toward more use of AI in commercial herds

  • Advantages

    • Increases the ability to bring superior genetics to the herd

    • Makes the use of superior boars on more sows possible

    • Reduces the risk of disease transmission

    • Makes it possible to bring new bloodlines into the herd

Breeding gestation period
Breeding-Gestation Period

  • Breed gilts at 7-8 months of age and a weight of 250-300 pounds

  • Breed during the second heat for larger litters

  • Move gilts outside to dirt lots by the time they weigh 175-200 pounds to increase conception rates

  • Boars should be 7 ½ months of age before breeding


  • Check for standing heat at least 1 X day

    • Checking 2 X’s day increases conception rate

  • Breed gilts at least twice at 12 hour intervals after standing heat is detected

  • Breed sows at least twice at 24 hour intervals after standing heat is detected


  • Keep gilts and sows separate

  • Boars of the same size and age can be run together during the off-breeding season

    • Do not run boars of different ages together

  • Provide shade to animals on pasture

  • Avoid overheating

  • Supply plenty of fresh water

  • Keep the breeding herd separate from the other hogs to avoid disease

Farrowing period
Farrowing Period

  • Behavior determines when a sow is about to farrow

  • Most sows farrow within about six hours after they begin a period of intensive activity

    • Intensive activity is when a sow stands up and lies down more often than once per minute

  • Sows will also root and paw at the pen floor when they are ready to begin farrowing

Farrowing period1
Farrowing Period

  • Farrowing can be induced by giving the sow commercially available drugs 111-113 days after breeding, the sow will farrow 18-36 hours later

Advantages of farrowing in a short period of time
Advantages of Farrowing in a Short Period of Time

  • Easier to even up litter sizes by cross-fostering piglets

  • Labor is more efficiently utilized

  • Easier to keep a group of sows on a uniform rebreeding schedule

  • Breeding herd can be better managed because the farrowing time is more predictable

Farrowing facilities
Farrowing Facilities

  • Must be cleaned and disinfected before sows are placed in them

  • Traffic must be kept to a minimum in farrowing houses

  • Sows must be washed with soap and water before being moved to clean pens

    • Sows should be moved to farrowing pens at least 1 day before farrowing.

Farrowing facilities1
Farrowing Facilities

  • Guard rails and artificial heat are used to protect the baby pigs after birth

  • For newborn pigs the temperature should be 90-95 degrees F under the heat lamp

  • Heat maps are placed 18” above the pigs

  • After 4-5 days the temperature is lowered to 80-85 degrees F by raising the heat lamp

Caring for baby pigs
Caring for Baby Pigs

  • Many are saved by the operator being present at farrowing time

    • Sows need assistance

    • Piglets trapped in after-birth can be saved

  • Baby pigs must be kept warm and dry

Caring for baby pigs1
Caring for Baby Pigs

  • Clip needle teeth

  • Done with disinfected clippers

  • Pigs less than 2 days old, clip needle teeth at the gum line

  • Pigs over 2 days old, clip 1/3 to ½ of the tooth

  • Avoid injuring the gum

  • See fig. 22-4

  • The navel cord should also be clipped shortly after birth to 1-1.5” and disinfected with tincture of iodine

Ear notching
Ear Notching

  • Used for identification

  • Required for registration in purebred associations

  • Determination of right and left ear is made from the rear

  • See fig 22-5 p. 436

Ear notching activity
Ear Notching Activity

  • Worksheet and Scissors and Coloring Utensils needed

Caring for baby pigs2
Caring for Baby Pigs

  • Efforts should be made to save runts

    • Use milk replacer or other methods

    • Feed orally once or twice a day

    • Saves about ½ the pigs that would otherwise die

  • Litter size should equalized

    • Move pigs from large litters to small in order to make them equal.

    • Be sure that pigs nurse colostrums milk before moving them.

    • Make sure the sow has the nursing ability and the number of teats necessary for the number of pigs that are in the litter.

Farrowing to weaning period
Farrowing to Weaning Period

  • Several important management practices

  • Tail docking

    • Cutting the pigs tail ¼-1/2 inch from the body

    • Done when pigs are 1-3 days old

    • Use side cutting pliers or chicken debeaker

    • Disinfect the tail stub with iodine spray and disinfect the cutter between pigs.

    • Producers of feeder pigs should always

    • Do not dock tail while pigs have scours

    • Docking the tail prevents tail biting among pigs in confinement.

Farrowing to weaning period1
Farrowing to weaning period

  • Give iron injections or oral iron doses

  • Should be done at 2-4 days old

  • Injections should be given in the neck or forearm

  • Iron-dextran shots are given at the rate of 100-150 mg per pig

  • Give a second dose at 2 wks of age

    • Iron can be added to feed or water at this time.

  • Use care when giving iron shots as an overdose may cause shock

Farrowing to weaning period2
Farrowing to Weaning Period

  • Watch closely for scours

    • Treatments with oral drugs work better.

  • Castrate male pigs that will be raised for slaughter

    • Best done when young, before 2 weeks of age is best

  • Do not castrate, vaccinate and wean all in the same period of time as it overstresses the animal.

Farrowing to weaning period3
Farrowing to Weaning Period

  • Start pigs on feed as soon as possible.

  • Control diseases and parasites.

    • This program should be tailored to the farm.


  • Trend towards earlier weaning

  • Earlier weaning requires higher levels of management and nutrition

  • Usually means pigs are weaned before 5 weeks of age

    • Average is between 5 and 8 weeks

  • Pigs should weigh at least 12 pounds at the time of weaning

  • Avoid drafts and great temperature change when weaning pigs

  • Group pigs according to size

  • Groups should be no more than 30 pigs if possible

Weaning to market
Weaning to Market

  • Most management centers around feeding and facilities

  • Hogs are raised either in confinement or on pasture



  • Requires more capital investment

  • Hogs gain a little faster


  • Good pasture can reduce the need for protein supplements


  • Group hogs in uniform size lots by weight

    • Groups should be no large than 50-75 head

  • Weight range should be no more than 20% above or below the average of the group

  • Hogs should be marketed at about 230 pounds

Swine management and industry

  • Accounts for 60-65% of the expenses

  • Wasted feed reduces feed efficiency

  • Feed loss can be reduced by

    • Adjusting feeders at least once a week

    • Controlling rodents in feed storage and feeding areas

Medicated early weaning
Medicated Early Weaning

  • Can help reduce the incidence of disease

  • Sows are given broad spectrum antibiotics before farrowing and during lactation

  • Pigs are weaned at 10 days of age and moved to a new location

  • Pigs are given broad spectrum antibiotics during the first 5 days after birth

  • Phase feeding is used to feed the pigs


  • Reduced incidence of disease

  • Research shows an increase of 14% in average daily gain

  • Also shows an increase of 9% in feed efficiency

  • Death loss is reduced


  • Increased cost when multiple sites are used

  • More facilities are needed

  • Pigs and feed must be transported to other sites

  • Other hog facilities must be 2-10 miles away depending on the disease that is the problem

All in all out method
All In/ All Out Method

  • Can improve rate of gain and feed efficiency

  • Reduces incidence of disease

  • Pigs move as a group from nursery, through growing and finishing and to market

  • Groups consist of pigs farrowed within a short period of time-usually 2-3 weeks

All in all out
All In/ All Out

  • Facilities are cleaned and disinfected between groups

  • Manure, bedding and feed is moved from the facility when it is cleaned

  • Facilities are left idle for a short period of time between groups

Feeder pigs
Feeder Pigs

  • Generally 8-9 weeks of age

  • Average 35-50 pounds

  • Faster turnover in the volume of pigs handled

  • Less feed is required for each dollars worth of pig sold

  • Labor is needed year round

  • Good sanitation and disease control are necessary

Feeder pigs1
Feeder Pigs

  • Large volume operators have lower costs per pig than small volume operators

  • Net returns are higher for large volume operators as well

  • Up to weaning, feeding and management practices are about the same for feeder pig production as other types pig production

  • Good management and marketing practices are necessary if feeder pig production is to be profitable.

Feeder pigs2
Feeder Pigs

  • Should be bought from a reliable source

  • Isolate newly arrived feeder pigs from other pigs

  • Allow pigs sufficient space, time to rest and shade if is hot

  • Sort pigs into uniform lots according to size

  • Feeding and management practices are similar to those for market hogs

Video review
Video Review

  • Swine management video with worksheets

Swine management and care

Swine Management and Care

Animal Science Level 2

Selecting Feed for Swine

Feed costs
Feed Costs

  • Range from 55-70% of the total cost of raising hogs

  • Combining the right kinds of feed in a well balanced ration is one of the most important tasks of the hog producer.

  • Nutrient needs of hogs include

    • Energy

    • Protein

    • Minerals

    • Vitamins

    • water

Energy feeds
Energy Feeds

  • Corn

  • Barley

  • Buckwheat

  • Milo

  • Wheat

  • Oats

  • Rye

  • Triticale

  • Potatoes

  • Bakery waste

  • Fats,tallows and greases

  • Molasses

Swine management and industry

  • Basic energy feed

  • High in digestible carbs

  • Low in fiber

  • Palatable

  • Other feeds are compared to corn when determining their feed value

  • See table 22-2

Corn co products
Corn Co-Products

  • Products from the corn-refining industry

  • Corn gluten feed

  • Corn germ meal


  • Good substitute for corn

  • In some parts of the US it is fed more than corn

  • High fiber

  • Slightly less digestible

  • Higher protein

  • Must be supplemented with proteins, minerals, and vitamins

  • Ground medium fine

  • Also rolled or pelleted

  • Not as palatable

  • Poisonous to hogs if scabby


  • Has 80-90% of the feed value of corn

  • 11% crude fiber

  • Not as palatable

  • Generally mixed with other grains

  • Less protein supplement needed

  • Not recommended for lactating sows or small pigs

  • Can be used for gestating sows and in fast growing rations

  • Not recommended that it be used for more than 50% of the ration

  • Can cause buckwheat rash in white pigs when they are exposed to sunlight

Swine management and industry

  • Higher protein than corn

  • Can replace all the corn in hog rations

  • Must be supplemented with protein, minerals and vitamins

  • Has a relative feed value of 90-95% compared to corn


  • Equal to or slightly higher in feed value than corn

  • Higher in

    • Protein

    • Lysine

    • Phosphorus

  • Relative feed value is 100-105% compared to corn

  • Energy value is slightly lower

  • Relative price of wheat compared to other grains is a determining factor when considering its use in swine rations

  • Must be processed through a roller mill

Swine management and industry

  • Higher protein, but poorer quality

  • Protein supplement must be used

  • High in fiber

  • Relative feed value of 85-90%

  • Should not be substituted for more than 20% for growing-finishing hogs

  • Should be medium to finely ground

  • Hulled, rolled oats make an excellent starter ration for baby pigs

Swine management and industry

  • Not a very good feed for hogs

  • Relative feed value of 90%

  • Less palatable than other grains

  • Should not make up more than 25% of the grain ration

  • Harder than corn and should be ground

  • Sometimes infested with a fungus called ergot

    • Ergot will cause abortion in pregnant sows and ergot infested rye should never be fed to them

    • It will also slow down gains in growing-finishing hogs


  • Hybrid cereal grain

  • Cross between wheat and rye

  • More lysine than corn

  • Not as palatable

  • No more than 50% of the ration should be triticale

  • Some varieties maybe infested with ergot

    • Ergot infested triticale should not be fed to pregnant sows.


Wheat Rye Triticale


  • May be fed to hogs

  • Contain mainly carbs

  • Must be fed with a protein supplement

  • Heavier hogs make better use of potatoes

  • Takes about 400 lbs of spuds to equal the feed value of 100 lbs of corn

  • Should be fed at the rate of 1 part potatoes to 3 parts grain

  • Should be cooked before they are fed

Bakery waste
Bakery Waste

  • Include

    • Stale bread, bread crumbs, cookies, crackers

  • Average protein content is about 10%

  • A good protein supplement must be fed

Fats tallow and greases
Fats, Tallow and Greases

  • High energy

  • Make up less than 5% of the ration

  • Used to improve the binding qualities of pelleted feed

    • Binding quality is how well the feed particles stick together

  • Decreases carcass quality if feed in excess

  • Contain no protein, minerals, or vitamins

  • Proper nutrient supplements are essential when these substances are part of the ration


  • Provide carbs

  • Can be substituted for part of the grain

  • Should never be more than 5% of the ration

  • May result in scours if over-fed

Soybean oil meal
Soybean Oil Meal

  • Available with a 44 or 49% protein content

  • 49% meal is used in pre-starter and starter rations

  • Both are equal in value for growing-finishing pigs

  • Protein quality is excellent

  • Most widely used protein source in hog rations

  • Very palatable

    • Hogs will overeat soybean oil meal if fed free choice

  • Good balance of amino acids

  • Other feeds that are fed are compared to soybean oil meal when determining their feed value.

Cottonseed meal
Cottonseed Meal

  • 40-45% protein

  • Poor quality

  • Low in lysine

  • Maybe fed as 5% of the protein in the ration

  • Some contains gossypol which is toxic to hogs

    • If the gossypol is removed cottonseed meal may replace up to 50% of the soybean oil meal in the ration

  • Low in minerals

  • Fair in in Vitamin B

  • Not palatable to hogs

  • Do not use as a starter ration

Linseed meal
Linseed Meal

  • 35-36% protein

  • Poor quality

  • Must be fed with other protein sources

  • Usually makes up no more than 5% of the ration

  • More calcium than soybean or cotton meals, about the same for Vitamin B

  • Best fed in combination with animal protein sources

  • Acts as a laxative in large amounts

Peanut meal
Peanut Meal

  • 47% protein

  • Low in several amino acids

  • Must be fed with other protein sources

  • Becomes rancid if stored more than a few weeks

  • Low in vitamins and minerals

Whole soybeans
Whole Soybeans

  • About 37% protein

  • Can be used to replace soybean oil meal

  • Higher in energy

  • Lower in protein

  • 6 lbs of whole cooked soybeans can substitute for 5 lbs of soybean oil meal

  • Higher energy of the whole soybeans may increase feed efficiency by 5%

  • Do not use raw soybeans in growing-finishing ration

    • They contain an antitrypsin factor that prevents the action of the enzyme trypsin in non-ruminants such as swine, resulting in a reduction in the availability of tryptophan, an essential amino acid

    • Heating the soybeans destroy the antitrypsin factor

Tankage and meat scraps
Tankage and Meat Scraps

  • 50-60% protein

  • Inadequate amounts of the amino acid tryptophan

  • Must be used with other protein sources

  • High in calcium, phosphorus

  • Vitamin content is variable

  • Not as palatable as soybean meal

  • Maximum percentage of tankage included depends on the ration being fed

    • Gestation rations 10%

    • Lactation 5%

    • Growing and finishing 5%

    • Starter rations 0%

Meat and bone meal
Meat and Bone Meal

  • 50% protein

  • The amount of bone in the mix determines the value

  • Low in lysine

  • Maximum percentage varies with the type of ration

    • Gestation 10%

    • Lactation, starter, grower, finisher 5%

Fish meal
Fish Meal

  • 60-70% protein

  • Excellent quality

  • High in minerals and vitamins

  • Palatable

  • Usually to expensive to use except in creep rations

  • Maximum fish meal to use is 5%

Skim milk and buttermilk
Skim Milk and Buttermilk

  • 33% protein when dry

    • Only worth 1/10 that much when in liquid form

  • Quality is good

  • Good sources of B vitamins

  • Often used in creep rations in the dry form

  • Maximum amount to use in starter rations 20%

  • Dried skim milk should not be used in gestation, lactation, grower or finishing rations

Swine management and industry

  • Liquid form 1% protein

  • Dry 13-14% protein

  • Excellent quality

  • Starter rations may contain up to 20% dry whey

  • In gestation, lactation, grower, and finisher rations whey should be limited to no more than 5% dry whey

Alfalfa meal
Alfalfa Meal

  • 13-17% protein

  • Large amounts of vitamins A & B

  • Excellent roughage for hogs

  • Good source of minerals

  • Should be limited to no more than 5% of the ration for growing-finishing hogs

  • For brood sows it may make up as much as 50% of the ration; it helps keep them from getting too fat

  • For lactating sows it may make up a maximum of 10% of the ration

  • Do not use alfalfa meal in starter rations

Alfalfa hay
Alfalfa Hay

  • Generally not used in hog rations except for the breeding herd

  • Hay must be ground and mixed in the ration for self feeding sows and gilts

  • It can be used to make up as much as 1/3 of the ration


  • Most valuable in the ration of breeding stock

  • 10-12 lbs of corn or grass-legume silage can be fed per day to sows and gilts during pregnancy

  • Must be supplemented with protein and minerals

  • Moldy silage should never be fed.


  • Valuable for feeding the breeding herd

  • Good quality pasture supplies the same nutrients as alfalfa meal and hay

  • Growing-finishing hogs will not gain as rapidly as those in a dry lot

  • However, pregnant sows and gilts get the exercise they need

  • Putting the breeding herd on good quality pasture supplies enough nutrients that concentrates may be reduced by up to 40%

  • Pasture is also sufficient for the herd boar

4 major minerals
4 Major Minerals

  • Calcium

  • Phosphorus

  • Sodium

  • chlorine

Trace minerals
Trace Minerals

  • Zinc

  • Iron

  • Copper

  • Selenium

  • Manganese

  • iodine

Swine management and industry

  • Adds sodium and chlorine

  • Should make up about 0.5% of the ration

Calcium phosphorus
Calcium & Phosphorus

  • Most common source is ground limestone

  • Ration should contain 0.5-0.7% Ca

  • Dicalcium phossphate supplies both calcium and phosphorus

  • Ration should contain 0.4-0.65% phosphorus

  • Other sources of calcium and phosphorus

    • Steamed bone meal

    • Defluorinated rock phosphate

Calcium phosphorus1
Calcium & Phosphorus

  • Feeding too much calcium or phosphorus may reduce the rate of gain for growing-finishing hogs

  • Excess calcium will interact with zinc and cause a zinc deficiency

  • Ratio of calcium to phosphorus should be 1.0 to 1.5 calcium to 1.0 total phosphorus in a grain-soybean meal diet

Sources of trace minerals
Sources of Trace Minerals

  • Found in commercial protein supplement mixes

  • Trace mineralized salt is another source

  • Trace mineral premixes are also available

Iron and copper
Iron and Copper

  • Especially important in baby pig rations

    • They prevent anemia

  • In addition to the iron supplied in the ration baby pigs should be given iron shots when they are 2-4 days old

Swine management and industry

  • Needed to prevent parakeratosis

  • Early weaned pigs have a higher zinc requirement than older pigs

Feeding minerals
Feeding Minerals

  • Care must be taken

  • Excess minerals slow the rate of gain

  • Minerals shouldn’t be added to rations that contain commercial protein supplements unless the feed tag says otherwise

  • Mineral mixes can be fed free choice to hogs since they will not overeat minerals if they are receiving enough in the ration.


  • Many that are required are already present in the feeds

  • Vitamins that must be added to the ration are

    • A

    • D

    • E

    • K

    • Riboflavin

    • Niacin

    • Pantothenic acid

    • Choline

    • Vitamin B12


  • May be added as part of

    • complete protein supplements

    • Mineral-vitamin premixes

    • Vitamin premixes

  • The major differences between these sources is the amount of vitamins they contain and their costs


  • It is difficult to determine the exact amount of vitamins they contain since the feed tags do not usually list the amounts

  • Past experience with a particular mix is the best guide to follow in selecting a vitamin source


  • Complete supplements and mineral-vitamin premixes usually cost more than vitamin premixes

  • If the producer does not have mixing equipment on the farm it is best to use complete mixes.

  • Premixes are used in such small amounts per ton that it is difficult to mix them into the ration properly


  • One of the most important nutrients

  • Plenty of water should be available at all times

  • It should be fresh, clean and no colder than 45 degrees F

  • It should be checked periodically for nitrate content

    • To much nitrate or nitrite in the water is not good for hogs

  • See fig 22-2 p. 423


  • Increase efficiency

  • Enable pigs to

    • Grow at a faster rate

    • Improve feed conversion

    • Reduce disease stress

Common additives
Common Additives

  • Anthelmintics

  • Antibiotics

  • Arsenicals

  • Nitrofurans

  • Sulfa compounds

Sources of additives
Sources of Additives

  • Complete protein supplements

  • Complete mixed feeds

  • Premixes

    • Must be carefully mixed into the ration for even distribution

Factors to consider when evaluating additives
Factors to Consider when Evaluating Additives

  • Costs

  • Which additives are included

  • Amounts of additives in the source

Other rules for additives
Other Rules for Additives

  • Feed tag instructions must be carefully followed

  • Withdrawal times must be observed when marketing hogs

Preparation of feeds1
Preparation of feeds

  • Hog feeds are generally ground for most efficient use

  • Corn, barley, milo, and oats should be finely ground

  • Wheat should be coarsely ground

Pelleting feed
Pelleting Feed

  • Improves efficiency

  • Less feed waste

  • Improves high fiber rations

  • Buying complete pelleted feed may be less expensive

Liquid or paste
Liquid or Paste

  • Reduces waste

  • Rate of gain increase

  • Higher costs for labor

  • No clear advantage to feeding liquids or pastes

Wet feeding
Wet Feeding

  • Made from different materials

    • Stainless steel last longer but is more expensive

    • Some are made of plastic—they are easier to clean

  • Need to be kept in an area that doesn’t freeze

  • Must be checked frequently

  • Better management is needed

  • No advantage to cooking, soaking or fermenting