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Stroke/turn judge Clinic Wisconsin Swimming Officials Committee Rev. Oct 2013
Overview • Welcome/Introductions/Purpose • General Guidelines • Lead/Lag Protocol • Strokes • Butterfly • Backstroke • Breaststroke • Freestyle • IM • Relays
Overview • Relay Take-off Judging • Place Judging • Chief Judge • Head Chief Judge • Other points • What’s Next
Welcome • Introductions • Name • Club • Motivation • Paperwork • Background Check • Registrations • Release of Contact Info • Manuals/Rule Books/Readings/DVD
General Guidelines • Purpose of Officiating • To insure fair competition among all swimmers by assuring compliance with the rules for competitive swimming and to treat each swimmer equally under those rules. • Be Competent • Know the rules. Ask for clarifications. • Review rules and officiate often (nothing trumps deck time) • Be professional • Looking like you know what you are doing makes people think you know what you’re doing
General Guidelines • Meet Officials • Meet Referee • Administrative Official • Administrative Referee • Head Chief Judge • Deck Referee • Starter • Stroke/Turn Officials • Levels of Certification • N1 – LSC Certification • N2 – Evaluation required • N3 – Initial and final evaluations required
General Guidelines • Jurisdictions • “Assigned area of responsibility” • Determined by the Meet Referee in conformance with USA Swimming guidelines. • Stroke Judge: Generally wall-to-wall (may be different as assigned by the Referee or Head Chief Judge) • Turn End Judge: Last arm pull-to-first stroke (may be given flag-in stroke duties as assigned by the Referee or Head Chief Judge)
General Guidelines • Jurisdictions • Start End/Finish Judge: From the start until swimmer surfaces, and last stroke into the finish • Relay Take-off Judge: Relay take-offs only for assigned lanes • Do not attempt to officiate outside of your jurisdiction
General Guidelines • When a Violation Occurs • Immediately raises one hand overhead, palm open • Required by the rules • Do your thinking AFTER this signal • EXCEPTION: Relay exchanges; after last swimmer of the heat leaves • Record the infraction • On the heat sheet (if supplied one) • On the DQ slip (if writing own DQs) • Event, heat, lane, name/team, and infraction(s) • Sign the slip • Report the infraction to the referee • Over the radio • Through the Chief Judge
General Guidelines • Be prepared to answer three questions: • Where were you? • Be in the correct position to make the call • Head over the water or straight down the wall for turns • At or just behind the swimmers hips for strokes • What did you see? • Be able to describe what you saw (without using motions) • Which hand touched first? • When did the swimmer submerge before the finish? • What rule was broken? • Know the rules (not by number) • Use rule book language • Refer all questions from the coaches to the Deck or Meet Referee
General Guidelines • Do not be offended if the Referee or Chief Judge over-rules your call • If you think you saw an infraction; you didn’t • You need to know you saw an infraction and what rule it violated • Ugly swimming is not necessarily illegal • The swimmer always gets the benefit of the doubt • We are casual observers of the meet, noting infractions of the rules • We are not looking for infractions
General Guidelines • Be aware of deck balance • Mirror the deck • Watch all assigned lanes all of the time • Even when no swimmer is swimming • Turn officials position • Over the lane • As assigned by the Meet Referee/Head Chief Judge • Stroke official position • Behind hips of slowest assigned swimmer • Except Freestyle: Stationed at 15m mark • Whistle Protocol
Lead/Lag Protocol • Paired with another stroke official • Never closer than six feet • Break swimmers into two groups • Take the group closest to your wall • Never go past your opposite flags • Never cross your partner
Butterfly Start • The forward start shall be used. • “An entry made while facing the course” • Platform: At least one foot in the forward half of the block • Deck: At least one foot at the edge of the deck • Pool: At least one hand on the wall • Swimmer must be certified by his/her coach to start from the blocks
Butterfly Stroke • After the start and after each turn, the swimmer’s shoulders must be at or past the vertical toward the breast. • The swimmer is permitted one or more leg kicks, but only one arm pull under water, which must bring the swimmer to the surface. • It shall be permissible for a swimmer to be completely submerged for a distance of not more than 15 meters (16.4 yards) after the start and after each turn. • By that point, the head must have broken the surface.
Butterfly Stroke • The swimmer must remain on the surface until the next turn or finish. • From the beginning of the first arm pull, the body shall be kept on the breast. • Both arms must be brought forward over the water and pulled back simultaneously. • The entire length of the arm must break the placid surface of the water • Arm: Wrist to shoulder
Butterfly Kick • All up and down movements of the legs and feet must be simultaneous. • The position of the legs or the feet need not be on the same level, but they shall not alternate in relation to each other. • A scissors or breaststroke kicking movement is not permitted.
Butterfly Turns • At each turn the body shall be on the breast. • The touch shall be made with both hands separated and simultaneously at, above, or below the water surface. • Need not be in the same plane • Once a touch has been made, the swimmer may turn in any manner desired. • The shoulders must be at or past the vertical toward the breast when the swimmer leaves the wall. • Watch the feet leave the wall, then check shoulders for body orientation
Butterfly Finish • At the finish, the body shall be on the breast and the touch shall be made with both hands simultaneously at, above, or below the water surface. • Hands need not be in the same plane
Backstroke Start • The swimmers shall line up in the water facing the starting end, with both hands placed on the gutter or on the starting grips. • Standing in or on the gutter, placing the toes above the lip of the gutter, or bending the toes over the lip of the gutter, before or after the start, is prohibited.
Backstroke Stroke • The swimmer shall push off on his back and continue swimming on the back throughout the race. • Some part of the swimmer must break the surface of the water throughout the race, except it is permissible for the swimmer to be completely submerged during the turn, and for a distance of not more than 15 meters (16.4 yards) after the start and after each turn. • By that point, the head must have broken the surface of the water.
Backstroke Turns • Upon completion of each length, some part of the swimmer must touch the wall. • During the turn the shoulders may be turned past the vertical toward the breast after which an immediate continuous single arm pull or an immediate continuous simultaneous double arm pull may be used to initiate the turn. • The swimmer must have returned to a position on the back upon leaving the wall. • Watch the feet leave the wall, then check shoulders for body orientation
Backstroke Finish • Upon the finish of the race, the swimmer must touch the wall while on the back. • “The moment of touching the end of the course.”
Breaststroke Start • The forward start shall be used.
Breaststroke Stroke • After the start and after each turn when the swimmer leaves the wall, the body shall be kept on the breast. • It is not permitted to roll onto the back at any time. • Throughout the race the stroke cycle must be one arm stroke and one leg kick in that order. • All movements of the arms shall be simultaneous and in the same horizontal plane without alternating movement.
Breaststroke Stroke • The hands shall be pushed forward together from the breast on, under, or over the water. • The elbows shall be under water except for the final stroke before the turn, during the turn and for the final stroke at the finish. • The hands shall be brought back on or under the surface of the water. • The hands shall not be brought back beyond the hip line, except during the first stroke after the start and each turn.
Breaststroke Stroke • During each complete cycle, some part of the swimmer’s head shall break the surface of the water. • After the start and after each turn, the swimmer may take one arm stroke completely back to the legs. • The head must break the surface of the water before the hands turn inward at the widest part of the second stroke.
Breaststroke Kick • After the start and each turn, a single butterfly kick, which must be followed by a breaststroke kick, is permitted during or at the completion of the first arm pull. • First arm pull begins with observable separation of the hands • A pause after the separation of the hands is not a violation • Following which, all movements of the legs shall be simultaneous and in the same horizontal plane without alternating movement. • The feet must be turned outwards during the propulsive part of the kick.
Breaststroke Kick • A scissors, flutter or butterfly kick is not permitted except as provided herein. • Breaking the surface of the water with the feet is allowed unless followed by a butterfly kick.
Breaststroke Turns & Finish • At each turn and at the finish of the race, the touch shall be made with both hands simultaneously at, above, or below the water level. • Need not be in the same plane • The head may be submerged after the last arm pull prior to the touch, provided it breaks the surface of the water at some point during the last complete or incomplete cycle preceding the touch
Freestyle Start • The forward start shall be used.
Freestyle Stroke • In an event designated freestyle, the swimmer may swim any style, except that in a medley relay or an individual medley event, freestyle means any style other than butterfly, breaststroke or backstroke. • Some part of the swimmer must break the surface of the water throughout the race, except it shall be permissible for the swimmer to be completely submerged during the turn and for a distance of not more than 15 meters (16.4 yards) after the start and each turn. • By that point the head must have broken the surface.
Freestyle Turns • Upon completion of each length the swimmer must touch the wall.
Freestyle Finish • The swimmer shall have finished the race when any part of his person touches the wall after completing the prescribed distance.
Individual Medley (IM) • The swimmer shall swim the prescribed distance in the following order: the first one-fourth, butterfly; the second one-fourth, backstroke; the third one-fourth, breaststroke; and the last one-fourth, freestyle. • Forward start • Strokes are according to individual stroke rules • Turns • Within a stroke treated as a turn for that stroke • Transitioning between strokes treated as the finish of the first stroke • Finish at end of distance
Relays • Four swimmers • Each swimmer swims one-fourth of the prescribed distance • Each stroke is swum according to the rules of the stroke • In relay races a swimmer other than the first swimmer shall not start until his/her teammate has concluded his/her leg • “Start” means leaving the blocks/wall • Each relay team member shall leave the water immediately upon finishing his/her leg, except the last member
Relay Take-off Judge • Relay take-off • Cover assigned lanes with partner • Watch waiting swimmer until leaves wall/blocks • Look for touch of incoming swimmer • Notate the take-off (DO NOT raise hand) • Do not confer with partner until all assigned exchanges are complete • “I have a potential early take-off” • Partner will answer with their early take-offs (if any) • Dual confirmation results in a DQ
Place Judge • Place Judge • Position on side of the pool • Cover all lanes • Note as many as you can • Record a tie if indistinguishable • Results used to resolve timing discrepencies
Chief Judge • Act as mentor to other judges • Verifies all deck calls • “What did you see?” • “What rule was violated?” • “What is your jurisdiction?” • “Where were you?” • Recommend judgment to referee • Communicates between deck judges and: • Referee • Announcer • Swimmers
Head Chief Judge • Communicate with all deck officials before meet • Assign positions • Conduct the official’s briefing • Manage officials’ equipment • Radios • Clipboards • Paperwork • Complete DQ slips
Other Points - General Rule Violations • Unsportsmanlike conduct (102.10.3) • Using objects for propulsion • Lane dividers (ropes) (102.10.11) • Bottom of pool (during freestyle, swimmer may stand) (102.10.5) • Fins, etc. (102.10.10) • Interference (102.10.6 and 102.10.7) • Not completing the distance prescribed • Using watches or timing/pacing devices
Other Points - Suit Rules • We are not the swimsuit police • General specs • Men: Navel to knee • Women: Collarbone to knee • One suit only • “Modesty” garment • Exceptions must come from USA-S national chairman • Report infractions to the referee