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  1. Yellow Colonial Polyps Parazoanthus gracilis

  2. What is a Yellow Colonial Polyp? • Anemone • In the wild, these polyps can be found in the tropical Western Pacific Ocean where there is moderate light and water movement • long thin tentacles attached to a fluted body • eat mostly zooplankton from the water column on the wild, but can be fed brine shrimp, flake food, and mysis in aquariums • not an aggressive species of anemone, but are known to encroach and grow over other corals • Reproduce asexually

  3. Polyp Reproduction • Asexual • budding- a tentacle of the parent becomes incased with a calcareous nodule that grows ever increasingly until it is sufficiently weighted and developed to break away from the parent • tissue dripping- when a parent colony supplies calcium from its own skeleton to be reborn in daughter colonies that break away and disperse in time. The calcium becomes a tissue which drips to from a clone at the base of a colony • pedal laceration- when the polyp colony moves away, leaving behind small fragments of its base behind, which grow into new polyp heads

  4. Initial Proposal Questions 1. Will feeding the polyp (vs. not feeding one) increase growth? 2. How fast will it take one Yellow Colonial Polyp to grow a half inch (in the tank vs. on a propagation disk)? 3. How will the location of polyps within the tank, affect growth (feeding, currents, space, etc.)? 4. What will result if a polyp colony is moved into another tank? 5. Will a polyp that is touched by hand daily grow just as consistently as one that is not touched?

  5. Hypothesis • The Yellow Colonial Polyp (Parazoanthus gracilis) will have the greatest increase in growth when in an environment with at least 4 cm. of space around it, high current, less human interaction and regular feeding. Updated Hypothesis: January • In regard to the Yellow Colonial Polyp clusters along the front central area of the glass, (parazoanthus gracilis) The individual polyps growth will slow as budding occurs within the cluster.

  6. October and November • New or continued growth • Sunken power head, left corner rock, front right along wall • No competition between Nepthia & Aiptasia • Polyps close when not exposed to light

  7. December • Scrub Live rock due to excessive Aiptasia • Dehydration of Nepthea & Polyps • Brainstorming measurement methods • Four propagation plugs

  8. January • Revived Nepthea & polyps • Detection of Front Glass clusters • 1st trial measurements: measuring stick, different polyp locations • Inconsistent, inaccurate • Front Glass Clusters chosen, grouped and numbered • 2 weeks of measurements, growth identified

  9. February • Continue with Front Glass Cluster measurements • Measure once per week for 3 weeks • Polyps became immeasurable due to horizontal growth versus vertical • Red algae growth • Benefits of peppermint shrimp • Water testing- normal levels

  10. March • Continued Red algae growth and manual scraping • Front glass clusters continued to be immeasurable • Observed rapid change is position, size, and growth direction of the polyps

  11. Jan. 3 Front Glass Clusters

  12. Average Growth of Front Glass Clusters Average Height (mm) Observation Date

  13. Polyp Budding Within Each Cluster Number of Polyps Measurement Date

  14. Hypothesis And Conclusion • Hypothesis: • In regard to the Yellow Colonial Polyp clusters along the front central area of the glass, (parazoanthus gracilis) The individual polyps growth will slow as budding occurs within the cluster. • Conclusion: • As number of polyps within each cluster increases the average height of the cluster decreases (ex. Cluster B) • Cluster E not consistent with other clusters • Highest amount of polyps resulted in the lowest average height (ex. Cluster D)

  15. Bibliography • Borneman, Eric H. Aquarium Corals: Selection, Husbandry, and Natural History. Charlotte, VT: Microcosm, 2001. Print. • Brough, Clarice, and Carrie McBirney. "Yellow Polyps." Animal-World. N.p., 2011. Web. 3 Nov. 2011. <http://animal-world.com/Aquarium-Coral-Reefs/ Yellow-Polyps>. • Calfo, Anthony. Book of Coral Propagation: Reef Gardening for Aquarists. Vol. 1. Monroeville, PA: Reading Trees Publications, 2007. Print. • Fenner, Robert. "ZoanthidFAQs." WetWebMedia, Aquarium, Pond, Marine and Freshwater Fish, Reef Tanks, and Aquatics Information. Wet Web, 2009. Web. 16 Apr. 2012.http://www.wetwebmedia.com/zoanthid1.htm. • Foster, Race, and Marty Smith. "Colony Polyp, Yellow." LiveAquaria. Foster & Smith Inc., 1997-2011. Web. 2 Nov. 2011. • Nybakken, James W. . Marine Biology: An Ecological Approach. Cambridge: Harper & Row, 1982. Print. • Siegel, Terry. "Aquarium Invertebrates: Zoanthids: Polyps As Cute As A Button." Advanced Aquarist. Pomacanthus Publication, 2002. Web. 20 Apr. 2012.http://www.advancedaquarist.com/2003/2/inverts.> • Sprung, Julian. Invertebrates : a Quick Reference Guide. Coconut Grove (Florida): Ricordea, 2001. Print.