Why should you care ? Nutrition: Happiness is nothing more than good health and a bad memory. Albert Schweitzer • Physical Growth • Body image • Brain • Daily activities • Sports performance • Prevention of diseases
Healthy Diet: Why is it important in this age ? You gain 25% of adult height, 50% of adult weight and 40% of adult bone mass during adolescence. • Deposition of muscles • To become a healthy adult in future
Healthy Diet: How does it prevent diseases ? • Obesity/under-nutrition • Hypertension/heart disease • Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus • Osteoporosis/Dental caries • Anemia • Vitamins and Mineral deficiencies • Cancer
Healthy Diet: Deciding the right amount • Actual need varies with physical activity • Physically active people have higher energy needs • If you have low physical activity then you can become obese even with low intake. • Therefore, Energy intake should balance energy expenditure.
Healthy Diet: Food intake Carbohydrates 6-11 servings e.g. Rice, Chapati Salads, Vegetables (3-5) Fruits (2-4) Protein-based e.g. Milk, Milk products 2-3 Meat, egg/dal 2-3 • Increase fiber • Decrease oily foods • ‘No’ to soft drinks Recommendations of IAP: Indian Pediatrics 2004; 41:559 Courtesy – Dr.Swati Bhave, 2005.
FATS CARBOHYDRATES • Major and immediate source of energy. • Complex carbohydrates recommended • High-sugar foods not preferred. • Grains, cereals, fresh fruits, vegetables • Source of essential fatty acids. • Unsaturated fat recommended. e.g. Corn, cottonseed, Til oil, soybean, and sunflower oils contain about 50% polyunsaturated fat. • Saturated fats increase cholesterol levels. PROTEINS Daily requirements • Boys = 0.29-0.32 g/cm height • Girls = 0.27-0.29 g/cm height • 0.8 – 1.2 g/kg bodyweight • High intensity athletes = 1.2-1.8 g/kg • Pulses, lentils, soya, dairy products and animal food products.
Looks can be deceiving • Increased need during adolescence • Needs met by a well-balanced diet • Vitamin D • Thiamin • Riboflavin • Niacin • Vitamin B 12 • Vitamin C • Folic acid Sources – Fruits, fresh milk, sprouted beans etc. • Iron • Zinc • Iodine • Calcium
Iron • Anemia is most common nutritional deficiency in adolescents. • Increased red cell mass during adolescence. • Daily need Boys = 12 mg/d & Girls = 18 mg/d Green leafy vegetables, jaggery, wet dates, whole-grain, dried beans, peas & dried fruits, nuts & fortified wheat products, eggs, red meat etc. Calcium • Most bone mass acquired during adolescence. • Typical intake of calcium = about 800 mg/ d • Daily need = 1300 mg • Consumption of soft drinks & caffeine contribute substantially to low calcium intake in adolescents. • Bone mass deficiency may is irreversible. Milk and its products, yogurts, cheese, paneer, banana. Zinc • Second most abundant trace mineral in the body. (next to iron) • Necessary for normal growth. • Clinically apparent deficiency rare. • Daily need = 15 mg • Green leafy vegetables, wheat germ, whole grains meat, cheese, eggs, poultry, liver.
What is ‘Normal’ eating ? • Eating is regulated by hunger and satiety i.e. feeling full • Eating should be at regular intervals • Choose healthy snacks and food • If you eat healthy and exercise regularly you can occasionally enjoy high fat and high calorie junk foods.
Good eating habits • Maintain hygienic habits • Eat slowly, chew properly • Avoid TV viewing or reading while you eat • Small frequent meals • Never skip meals, specially breakfast • Don’t overeat
Do healthy snacks exist ? Yes, and in plenty. • Snacks like fresh fruits, sprouted beans and nuts are nutritious and healthy • Avoid energy dense snacks like burgers • “Empty calories” – High sugar drinks • Aerated drinks interfere with bone density and can damage teeth
Why is Fast Food unhealthy ? • High in calorie, fat, sodium and low in fiber which can cause • Obesity, Hypertension, Heart diseases, Diabetes, Cancer etc. • Contains preservatives • Choose low-calorie and low-fat meals, snacks and desserts • Have low fat or skim milk drinks.
The Middle Path: Making Junk food healthy • Replace the Cheese with Paneer or low-fat cheese • Add plenty of vegetables • Replace frying with grilling or baking • Replace white bread, maida noodles or maida pizza base with whole-grain wheat • Have low-fat or skimmed milk based products
Breakfast: The most important meal • Brain Food • Improves performance in studies • Improves physical activities • Does not contribute to overweight • Keeps you healthy • Skipping breakfast associated with obesity • High sugar breakfast causes a high sugar level which dips fast making you more hungry and you eat more sugary food
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: Why is it important ?
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: Types of physical activity • Daily Chores:walking, climbing stairs, cycling, household activities, etc. • Exercise: planned & structured subset of leisure time physical activity undertaken for improving or maintaining physical fitness. 30-60 minutes every day • Sports:involves competition. It may become an occupation.
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: Importance This includes : • Cardio-respiratory i.e. Heart & Lung fitness • Muscle strength • Endurance & flexibility
Television and Obesity • Excessive TV watching is associated with weight gain specially when associated with increased snacking with junk food and aerated drinks • TVsterol • Combine TV watching with physical activity like stationary bicycling, or spot jogging
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: Keeping in shape • It is recommended to have 30-60 min. moderate physical activity on weekdays, four days a week • It is not necessary to exercise continuously • Can be divided into 10 -15 minutes of activities several times through the day
Nutrition & Exercise: Myths • Girls don’t need muscle stretching exercises • You can become obese if you leave exercise • Expensive food and vitamins are needed for good health and machines for exercise • Sona-chandi • Health drinks
Key points • Proper Nutrition & Regular Physical Activity are very important for • Growth • Prevention of illness • Future health
What is Anemia? Deficiency of hemoglobin in red blood cells
Common Presentations of Anaemia • Oh!... I am so tired… • Out door games? Not for me! • Why can’t I remember better? • I fall sick so often… • I just can’t cope… • My mother died… when I was born.
Consequences of anemiaSchool children • Impaired cognitive performance • Diminished IQ • Attention deficit disorder • Decrease in school performance • Decrease in learning ability
Consequences of anemiaAll Age Groups • Increased tiredness • Disinterest in surroundings • Increased risk of death & disability • Increased risk of having premature babies • Poor exercise tolerance - tiredness • Impaired immune response – susceptible to infections
Anemia is preventable • Nutritional anemia • Anemia is most common nutritional deficiency in Adolescents beause of Increased red cell mass. • Daily need: Boys = 12 mg/d & Girls = 18 mg/d • Green leafy vegetables, jaggery, wet dates, whole-grain, dried beans, peas & dried fruits, nuts & fortified wheat products, eggs, red meat etc. • Anemia due to worms in the intestines • Acute blood loss anemia – accidents, child birth • Chronic blood loss anemia – heavy periods, piles