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PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY. Evolution over last years about gender equality .

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evolution over last years about gender equality
Evolution over last years about gender equality
  • Prior to 50s: women were defined mainly in terms of their reproductive role and traditional role in the family: C. 3 (maternity protection, 1919), C. 103 (revised 1952), R. 4 (excludes women from work involving exposure to lead poisining, 1919), C. 29 (the forced participation of women and children in prostitution,1939), C.45 (underground work in mines, 1935), C.89 (prohibition of night work for women in industry).

Women are protected as a vulnerable group subordinate to men

convention 100 equal remuneration 1951
Convention 100 (equal remuneration-1951)
  • Applies to basic salaries and to any other additional emoluments (supplements, bonuses, allowances, etc.) paid directly or indirectly to worker, in cash or in kind, as a result of his or her work
  • Defines equal pay for work of equal value as a rate of pay fixed without discrimination based on sex
  • The application of the C. is facilitated by the objective appraisal of jobs on the basis of the work to be done
  • Governments are to co-operate with employers ’ and workers ’ organisation in the practical application
convention 111 discrimination employment and occupation 1958
Convention 111 - Discrimination(employment and Occupation - 1958)
  • Promote equality of opportunity and treatment in respect of employment and occupation without discrimination based on race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin
  • Covers access to vocational training, access to employment and to particular occupations, and terms and conditions of employment
  • Any law and administrative instructionsor practices which are not in line with this policy, should be modified
  • The policy is to be carried out under the direct control of a national authority in its vocational guidance and training, and placement services;
  • C. 100 and 111 are reaffirmed as fundamental right
the wid approch women in development
THE WID APPROCH (women in development)

The 70s focus on the division of labour based on sex: the different impact of development and modernization strategies on women and men respectively.

Initiatives emphazided women’s access to training, credit and employment in order to improve women’s contribution to and their capacity to benefit from development to minimize disadvantanges on them

the wid approach
The WID Approach

4 shortcomings:

  • passive beneficiaries in the development process
  • it accepted existing social structures which tend to perpetuate gender inequalities
  • it focussed on the productive aspects of women ’s work and overlooked the burden of social and reproductive functions
  • « women-only » marginal and isolated projects.
gad gender and development
GAD (Gender and development)

In the 80ths,

  • Distinguishes biological differences (that are universal) from the social differences (that are variables) between women and men
  • Attention is given to the social processes and institutions that result in inequalities between women and men to the disadvantage of women

C. 155 (Occupational safety and health-1981), C.156 (workers with family responsabilitiess, 1981).

  • Social differences between men and women that are: learned, changeable over time, have wide variations with and between cultures
  • Socio-economic variable to analyse: roles, responsibilities, constraints, opportunities, needs of men and women.
  • Gender roles are affected by age, class, race, ethnicity, religion and ideologies and by the geographical, economical and political environment.
gender analysis
Gender analysis

Is a tool to identify:

  • what women and men do and why
  • Who has access to and control over resources of benefits
  • What needs men and women have and why
  • Linkage of above factors with the political and social environmental contex providing opportunity/constraint to ensure equality of oppotunity
gender planning


Addressing participation patterns and assistance requirement of men and women at all steps of policy and programme development

gad approach
  • To alter gender relations, women must participate in decision-making and must be empowered to develop and pursue strategies to address their own situation and to influence the direction of social change
  • Empowerment is a process of awareness and capacity building leading to greater participation, to greater decision-making power and control and to transformative action
mainstreaming women in development
Mainstreaming women in development
  • Inherent to the GAD approach
  • Requires explicit consideration of the actual and potential role of women in all sector of the economy and the impact of all policies, plans and programmes on women
  • Can include affirmative measures
other conventions
Other Conventions
  • C. 156 (workers with family responsibilities, 1981)
  • C. 175 (part-time work, 1994)
  • C. 177 (home work, 1996)
  • C. 183 (maternity, 2000)