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Emotion emotion\168_Emotion_2.mp4. Theories of Emotion: The body’s adaptive response. Theories of emotions.

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theories of emotions
Theories of emotions
  • Emotiona response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, & (3) conscious experience. Psychology 101 - Motivation and Emotion Part (1_9) - Introduction to Emotions.flv
    • Physiological arousal
    • Expressive behavior
    • Conscious experience
  • Common sense theory
theories of emotions1
Theories of emotions
  • James-Lange theorythe theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli. The James-Lange Theory of Emotion.mp4
theories of emotions2
Theories of emotions
  • James-Lange theory
theories of emotions3
Theories of emotions
  • James-Lange theory
theories of emotions4
Theories of emotions
  • Cannon-Bard theorythe theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses & (2) the subjective experience of emotion. The Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion.mp4
theories of emotions5
Theories of emotions
  • Cannon-Bard theory
theories of emotions6
Theories of emotions
  • Two-factor theorythe Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused & (2) cognitively label the arousal. The Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory of Emotion.mp4
theories of emotions7
Theories of emotions
  • Two-factor theory
    • Schachter-Singer
theories of emotions8
Theories of emotions
  • Two-factor theory
    • Schachter-Singer
slide12
Theories of emotions Psychology 101 - Motivation and Emotion Part (3_9) - Theories of Emotion.flv
embodied emotion
We know that emotions involve bodily responses. Some of these responses are very noticeable (butterflies in our stomach when fear arises), but others are more difficult to discern (neurons activated in the brain).Embodied Emotion
emotions the autonomic nervous system
Emotions & the Autonomic Nervous System
  • Autonomic nervous system
    • Sympathetic nervous system
      • arousing
    • Parasympathetic nervous system
      • Calming
    • Moderate arousal is ideal
    • The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems - Free Intro to Biology Video
arousal and performance
Arousal and Performance

Arousal in short spurts is adaptive.

We perform better under moderate arousal, but optimal performance varies with task difficulty.

Arousal and Performance.flv

physiological similarities
Physiological Similarities

Physiological responses related to the emotions of fear, anger, love, & boredom are very similar.

M. Grecco/ Stock Boston

Excitement and fear involve a similar

physiological arousal.

physiological differences among specific emotions
Physiological Differences Among Specific Emotions
  • Differences in facial muscles
  • Differences in brain activity. different emotions activate different areas of the brain. Negative emotions show more brain activity. Depressed or neg. people show more right frontal lobe brain activity area. Pos. moods, activate the left frontal lobe.
    • Amygdala-associated with fear & fight or flight; by- passes cortex allowing =super fast emotional responses
    • Frontal lobes-Nucleus accumbens – clusters of neurons that increase dopamine levels btwn the frontal lobes to these clusters
    • Polygraph
physiological differences
Physiological Differences

Physical responses, like finger temperature & movement of facial muscles, change during fear, rage, & joy.

The amygdala shows differences in activation during the emotions of anger & rage. Activity of the left hemisphere (happy) is different from the right (depressed) for emotions.

cognition emotion cognition can define emotion
Cognition & EmotionCognition Can Define Emotion
  • Spill over effect – physical reactions & cognition (to things around us) impact how we feel
    • Schachter-Singer experiment (2 factor Theory) arousal + label = emotion
  • Arousal fuels emotions, cognition channels it emotion\167_Emotion_1.mp4
two routes to emotion
Two Routes to Emotion

Zajonc and LeDoux emphasize that some emotions are immediate, without conscious appraisal. Lazarus, Schachter, and Singer emphasize that appraisal also determines emotions.

cognition emotion cognition does not always precede emotion
Cognition & EmotionCognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion
  • Influence of the amygdala Amygdala hijacking - Don't let it happen to you..flv
expressed emotion psychology 101 motivation and emotion part 2 9 categorizing emotions mp4
Expressed EmotionPsychology 101 - Motivation and Emotion Part (2_9) - Categorizing Emotions.mp4

Emotions are expressed on the face, by the body, & by the intonation of voice.

Is this nonverbal language of emotion universal?

Most people can detect NON Verbal cues. Especially Non Verbal Threats.

We read fear & anger mostly from the eyes. Happiness mostly from the mouth.

Introverts are better emotion-detectors than extravert, but extraverts are easier to read

detecting emotion
Detecting Emotion

Most of us are good at deciphering emotions through nonverbal communication. In a crowd of faces a single angry face will “pop out” faster than a single happy face.

detecting emotion1
Detecting Emotion

Hard-to-control facial muscles reveal signs of emotions you may be trying to conceal. emotion\172_Emotions_and_Expressions.mp

A feigned smile may continue for more than 4-5 seconds while a genuine smile will have faded by then.

emotion\173_Nonverbal_Communication.mp4

Dr. Paul Elkman, University of California at San Francisco

Which of Paul Ekman’s smiles is genuine?

gender emotion nonverbal behavior1
Gender, Emotion, &Nonverbal Behavior
  • W- generally better @reading emotions (emotional Literacy)
  • verbalize more complex emotions
  • React more deeply & remember better after
  • More likely to describe themselves as empathetic
  • Convey happiness better
  • M-convey anger better
culture emotional expression emotion 171 ekman mp4
Culture & Emotional Expression emotion\171_Ekman.mp4

Happiness – MOUTH Surprise widens eyes Fear pulled together raise eyebrow

Sadness turned up brow Anger turned in brow Disgust wrinkled nose

Some gestures are cultural. Children’s facial expressions are universal

Facial Expressions are common across the world

Cultural similarities in displaying “rules”

Cultures differ in how much they express emotions

emotions are adaptive
Emotions are Adaptive

Darwin speculated that our ancestors communicated with facial expressions in the absence of language.

Nonverbal facial expressions led to our ancestor’s survival.

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

the effects of facial expressions
The Effects of Facial Expressions
  • Facial feedbackthe effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happiness.
experienced emotion
Experienced Emotion

Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions.

Most of them are present in infancy, except for contempt, shame, and guilt.

slide36
Fear
  • Adaptive value of fear
  • The biology of fear
    • amygdala
anger
Anger
  • Evoked by events
    • friends & loved ones who commit wrongdoings, especially if they are willful, unjustified, & avoidable.
    • foul odors, high temperatures, traffic jams, & aches & pains.
  • Catharsis -emotional release. Catharsis hypothesis maintains that “releasing’ aggressive energy (through action/fantasy) relieves aggressive urges
  • Expressing anger can increase anger
happiness emotion 174 happiness trait mp4
Happiness emotion\174_Happiness_Trait.mp4
  • Feel-good, do-good phenomenon people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
  • Well-being self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical & economic indicators) to evaluate people’s quality of life.
happiness two psychological phenomena adaptation comparison
HappinessTwo Psychological Phenomena: Adaptation & Comparison
  • Happiness & Prior Experience
    • Adaptation-level phenomenonour tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.
  • Happiness & others’ attainments
    • Relative deprivationthe perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves.
stress and illness
Stress and Illness
  • Stress
    • Stress appraisal
stress and illness the stress response system
Stress and IllnessThe Stress Response System
  • Selye’s general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
    • Alarm
    • Resistance
    • exhaustion
stress and illness stressful life events
Stress and IllnessStressful Life Events
  • Catastrophes
  • Significant life changes
  • Daily hassles
stress and the heart
Stress and the Heart
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Type A versus Type B
    • Type A
    • Type B
stress and susceptibility to disease
Stress and Susceptibility to Disease
  • Psychophysiological illnesses
  • Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
    • Lymphocytes
      • B lymphocytes
      • T lymphocytes
    • Stress and AIDS
    • Stress and Cancer
teacher information
Teacher Information
  • Types of Files
    • This presentation has been saved as a “basic” Powerpoint file. While this file format placed a few limitations on the presentation, it insured the file would be compatible with the many versions of Powerpoint teachers use. To add functionality to the presentation, teachers may want to save the file for their specific version of Powerpoint.
  • Animation
    • Once again, to insure compatibility with all versions of Powerpoint, none of the slides are animated. To increase student interest, it is suggested teachers animate the slides wherever possible.
  • Adding slides to this presentation
    • Teachers are encouraged to adapt this presentation to their personal teaching style. To help keep a sense of continuity, blank slides which can be copied and pasted to a specific location in the presentation follow this “Teacher Information” section.
teacher information1
Teacher Information
  • Hyperlink Slides - This presentation contain two types of hyperlinks. Hyperlinks can be identified by the text being underlined and a different color (usually purple).
    • Unit subsections hyperlinks: Immediately after the unit title slide, a page (slide #3) can be found listing all of the unit’s subsections. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of these hyperlinks will take the user directly to the beginning of that subsection. This allows teachers quick access to each subsection.
    • Bold print term hyperlinks: Every bold print term from the unit is included in this presentation as a hyperlink. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of the hyperlinks will take the user to a slide containing the formal definition of the term. Clicking on the “arrow” in the bottom left corner of the definition slide will take the user back to the original point in the presentation.

These hyperlinks were included for teachers who want students to see or copy down the exact definition as stated in the text. Most teachers prefer the definitions not be included to prevent students from only “copying down what is on the screen” and not actively listening to the presentation.

For teachers who continually use the Bold Print Term Hyperlinks option, please contact the author using the email address on the next slide to learn a technique to expedite the returning to the original point in the presentation.

teacher information2
Teacher Information
  • Continuity slides
    • Throughout this presentation there are slides, usually of graphics or tables, that build on one another. These are included for three purposes.
      • By presenting information in small chunks, students will find it easier to process and remember the concepts.
      • By continually changing slides, students will stay interested in the presentation.
      • To facilitate class discussion and critical thinking. Students should be encouraged to think about “what might come next” in the series of slides.
  • Please feel free to contact me at [email protected] with any questions, concerns, suggestions, etc. regarding these presentations.

Kent Korek

Germantown High School

Germantown, WI 53022

262-253-3400

[email protected]

division title green print subdivision title blue print1
Division title (green print)subdivision title (blue print)

Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete this box when finished

definition slide
Definition Slide

= add definition here

emotion
Emotion

= a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.

james lange theory
James-Lange Theory

= the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.

cannon bard theory
Cannon-Bard Theory

= the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.

two factor theory
Two-factor Theory

= the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.

polygraph
Polygraph

= a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measure several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).

facial feedback
Facial Feedback

= the effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happiness.

catharsis
Catharsis

= emotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that “releasing’ aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.

feel good do good phenomenon
Feel-Good Do-Good Phenomenon

= people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.

well being
Well-being

= self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people’s quality of life.

adaptation level phenomenon
Adaptation-level Phenomenon

= our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.

relative deprivation
Relative Deprivation

= the perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves.

behavioral medicine
Behavioral Medicine

= an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavior and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease..

health psychology
Health Psychology

= a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine.

stress
Stress

= the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.

general adaptation syndrome gas
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

= Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three phases – alarm, resistance, exhaustion.

coronary heart disease
Coronary Heart Disease

= the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in North America.

type a
Type A

= Friedman and Rosenman’s term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people.

type b
Type B

= Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing, relaxed people.

psychophysiological illness
Psychophysiological Illness

= literally, “mind-body” illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.

psychoneuroimmunology pni
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)

= the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.

lymphocytes
Lymphocytes

= the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body’s immune system; B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.

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