Emotion emotion\168_Emotion_2.mp4. Theories of Emotion: The body’s adaptive response. Theories of emotions.
Arousal in short spurts is adaptive.
We perform better under moderate arousal, but optimal performance varies with task difficulty.
Arousal and Performance.flv
Physiological responses related to the emotions of fear, anger, love, & boredom are very similar.
M. Grecco/ Stock Boston
Excitement and fear involve a similar
Physical responses, like finger temperature & movement of facial muscles, change during fear, rage, & joy.
The amygdala shows differences in activation during the emotions of anger & rage. Activity of the left hemisphere (happy) is different from the right (depressed) for emotions.
Zajonc and LeDoux emphasize that some emotions are immediate, without conscious appraisal. Lazarus, Schachter, and Singer emphasize that appraisal also determines emotions.
Emotions are expressed on the face, by the body, & by the intonation of voice.
Is this nonverbal language of emotion universal?
Most people can detect NON Verbal cues. Especially Non Verbal Threats.
We read fear & anger mostly from the eyes. Happiness mostly from the mouth.
Introverts are better emotion-detectors than extravert, but extraverts are easier to read
Most of us are good at deciphering emotions through nonverbal communication. In a crowd of faces a single angry face will “pop out” faster than a single happy face.
Hard-to-control facial muscles reveal signs of emotions you may be trying to conceal. emotion\172_Emotions_and_Expressions.mp
A feigned smile may continue for more than 4-5 seconds while a genuine smile will have faded by then.
Dr. Paul Elkman, University of California at San Francisco
Which of Paul Ekman’s smiles is genuine?
Happiness – MOUTH Surprise widens eyes Fear pulled together raise eyebrow
Sadness turned up brow Anger turned in brow Disgust wrinkled nose
Some gestures are cultural. Children’s facial expressions are universal
Facial Expressions are common across the world
Cultural similarities in displaying “rules”
Cultures differ in how much they express emotions
Darwin speculated that our ancestors communicated with facial expressions in the absence of language.
Nonverbal facial expressions led to our ancestor’s survival.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions.
Most of them are present in infancy, except for contempt, shame, and guilt.
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= a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.
= the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.
= the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
= the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
= a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measure several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).
= the effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happiness.
= emotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that “releasing’ aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
= people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
= self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people’s quality of life.
= our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.
= the perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves.
= an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavior and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease..
= a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine.
= the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.
= Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three phases – alarm, resistance, exhaustion.
= the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in North America.
= Friedman and Rosenman’s term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people.
= Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing, relaxed people.
= literally, “mind-body” illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.
= the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.
= the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body’s immune system; B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.