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Cell Biology Mitosis, DNA, RNA
Mitosis (Cell Reproduction) • This is the process of cell division resulting in the production of 2 daughter cells from a single parent cell. • The daughter cells are identical to one another and to the parent cell. • Happens during growth or repair. • Mitosis is divided into 4 main stages: • P M A T etaphase naphase elophase rophase
Prophase n Metaphase 1) Prophase • Chromosomes are duplicated (become 2 sisters) • 2) Metaphase (Middle phase) • Chromosomes are aligned in the middle of the cell
Anaphase and Telophase 3) Anaphase • The paired chromosomes separate and move to the opposite sides of the cell. • 4) Telophase • Cell membrane pinches inwards, forming two daughter cells
Mitosis Video clips • Mitosis TPRs • http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=3kpR5RSJ7SA • http://www.cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm
Plant Cell v/s Animal Cell Has a LARGE vacuole Has small vacuoles Has a CELL WALL Does NOT have a cell wall Has a rectangular shape Has a oval shape
Which set of drawing shows what happens to cells in plant root tips during growth?
DNA and RNA • Is the hereditary material in all organisms located in the cell nucleus. • Information in DNA is stored in 4 bases: • A – Adenine • T – Thymine • C – Cytosine • G – Guanine A and T always form a base unit (AT & T) C and G form another base unit
DNA video clip • http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/tour/ • Remember • A always pairs with T • C and G go together
Remember AT & T, C with G G T C T
Remember AT & T, C with G T C A A G G T C T 3’ AGTTC 5’
Now for RNA • RNA is similar to DNA except that ‘T’ is replaced by ‘U’ or Uracil. • To convert DNA to RNA • Step 1: Replace C with G, G with C, A with T and T with A. • Step 2: Replace only ‘T’ with ‘U’ • What is the RNA molecule coded from the DNA molecule ATGCGC? • Step 1 T A C GCG U A C G C G Step 2
Find the RNA molecule For the DNA molecule http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJSmZ3DsntU Step 1 A G T T C Step 2 A G U U C
Review • Mitosis • Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase • Difference between Animal and Plant cells • RNA transcription • Complete the worksheet on Mitosis and DNA